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'File 1/A/38 II Negotiations with Bin Saud re: Eastern boundary of Saudi Arabia with Qatar & Trucial Oman.' [‎96r] (196/472)

The record is made up of 1 volume (232 folios). It was created in 27 Feb 1935-13 Oct 1935. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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[456 c—3]
EASTERN (Arabia). July 3 , 1935.
CONI IDEN UAL. Section 3.
”[ E 4111/77/91]
Fuad Bey Hamza to Mr. Rendel.—(Received July 3 .)
Saudi Arabian Legation, London,
Dear Mr. Rendel, July 2, 1935.
I AM very sorry that I was unable to prepare the note I promised you in the
course of our conversation on the 25th June on the subject of the line of frontiers
in Eastern and Southern Arabia before receiving your letter dated the 27th June.
This delay was caused by unavoidable reasons of which you are no doubt aware.
2 . I would like to explain most emphatically and sincerely that the line
of frontiers given in the note which I had the pleasure to present to Sir Andrew
Ryan in Jedda on the 3rd April, 1935 (29th Thil Hijja, 1353), was defined after
the most careful investigation into the actual situation at the present moment
and after the following important factors have been taken into consideration : —
(1) The fact that both Governments (the British and the Saudi Arabian) have
agreed to put aside the legal question so long as it was possible to
reach an honourable agreement, as it was preferable to try to draw a
new line for the frontiers which would be acceptable to all parties
concerned and which would safeguard the permanent common
(2) The fact that the Government of His Majesty King Abdul Aziz did
not adopt the wide principle which was the basis of her relations with
the tribes of the desert which had declared their allegiance and
submission to His Majesty the King as the tribes of Da-akeih, viz.,
A1 Manahil, Ahl Kathir and Ahl Mahra—and most of the tribes of
A1 Manasir, A1 Darn’, A1 ’Awamir, Beni Ghafir and others, but were
content to mention the natural boundaries which were at the same time
generally recognised by the tribes inhabitating the desert as belonging
to the tribes on whose members and lands His Majesty's Government
has exercised direct influence for a long period, during which their
ordinary members and their sheikhs were actually in His Majesty’s
service and His Majesty’s regular army.
(3) His Majesty’s Government’s realisation of the extreme difficulties which
may arise as a result of an unjust delineation of the frontiers and
particularly the great resentment which the tribes may feel if they
were abandoned after having rendered loyal allegiance and submission
all these long years and after having built their hopes for the future
on the continuity of the system of government devised for them and
His Majesty’s Government’s wish to keep its promise and fulfil its
obligations and responsibility towards its subjects and its neighbours.
3. Having outlined to you these fundamental points, I would like to point
out that the line of the frontiers which I presented to Sir Andrew Ryan does
not contain any exaggeration nor does it leave any room for bargaining or
discussion. As I have pointed out above, due note was taken in delineating this
line, of the tribal considerations which are generally admitted by the Bedouin
population and more especially by those of them who are neutral and are therefore
not interested in proving somebody’s claim or refuting it.
4. You will no doubt remember what I told you in our last two meetings,
that His Majesty’s Government fully appreciating the position delegated to me
the task of checking the official data concerning the frontiers by taking the
evidence of certain neutral persons among the experts of the desert. As a result
I became convinced that the line referred to above does not exceed the true state
of affairs and that the wells of Banaiyan, Sufuq, Battha and Bataihin belong
to the Ahl Murra.
5 . I would like to explain to you now certain details concerning the places
and wells belonging to the tribes which would make it easier to understand.

About this item


The volume concerns the definition of the eastern boundary of Saudi Arabia with Qatar and Trucial Oman, and negotiations over the boundary between British officials and Ibn Saud (also referred to as Bin Saud) [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd, King of Saudi Arabia].

The principal correspondents are the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Bahrain; HM Minister, Jedda [Jeddah] (Sir Andrew Ryan), later the Chargé d'Affaires, Jeddah (Andrew Spencer Calvert); and senior officials of the Foreign Office, the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , the Government of India, and the Colonial Office.

The papers cover: Anglo-Saudi negotiations over basing the frontier on the Blue Line [a line drawn by British and Turkish officials in 1913 from the Gulf of Uqair to parallel 20 degrees North, in the Rub al-Khali], and its extension on the side of Aden, the Violet Line; British proposals to base the frontier on a new line, the Green Line; further papers concerning the eastern, south, and south-eastern boundaries of Saudi Arabia; the effect of the proposed boundaries on the sheikhdom of Abu Dhabi; Foreign Office records of discussions between HM Minister, Jedda (Ryan) and the Deputy Saudi Arabian Minister for Foreign Affairs (Fuad Bey Hamza [Fu’ād Ḥamzah]), June-July 1935 (folios 85-102); papers concerning territorial claims of Ibn Saud in eastern and south-eastern Arabia, July 1935 (folios 103-108); investigations into tribal matters (e.g. folio 117); geological surveys and the likely presence of oil in the area (passim); the Qatar boundary (especially folios 136-173); the Qatar oil concession, September 1935 (folios 174-178); and papers concerning an air reconnaissance by British officials, with the assistance of the Royal Air Force (RAF), in order to determine certain key points on the proposed border in the area south of Qatar, October 1935 (folios 196-223).

The Arabic language content of the papers consists of fewer than ten folios, mainly copies of correspondence between Ibn Saud and the Ruler of Qatar [Shaikh ‘Abdullāh bin Jāsim Āl Thānī].

The date range gives the covering dates for the main items of correspondence; the earliest dated document is an enclosure to the first item of correspondence, dated 22 February 1935, and the last dated addition to the file is an entry in the notes on folio 229 dated 22 October [1935].

Extent and format
1 volume (232 folios)

The papers are arranged in chronological order from the front to the back of the file, except where enclosures of an earlier date are filed after their relevant covering letter, and terminate in a set of notes (folios 224-229). Serial numbers in red and blue crayon, in the form 'SNo:', followed by the number, refer to entries in the notes.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 234; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. An additional foliation sequence is also present in parallel between ff 6-229; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled, and are located in same position as the main sequence.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'File 1/A/38 II Negotiations with Bin Saud re: Eastern boundary of Saudi Arabia with Qatar & Trucial Oman.' [‎96r] (196/472), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/2/158, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 12 December 2019]

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