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'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎136r] (271/508)

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The record is made up of 1 file (252 folios). It was created in 15 Mar 1942-17 Aug 1948. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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to ibe that he had failed to obey a summons to come to TEIilAN to discuss
the final settlement -with ESZA Khan. The Shaikh remained in enforced
residence in TEHRAN until his death in May 193^* There were rumours that
his demise was accelerated, but he was ill and it is more probable that
he died a natural death. Early in this long captivity he was prevailed
upon to renounce all his rights in ARABISTAN, and Shaikhly rights over
much of his territory were allowed to lapse. Only the Ir u i estates
acquired with such wise prescience by old Hajji JADIR his father provided
him with the money on which he lived after his fall.
16 . The attitude of H.M.G. appears to be that his failure to abide
by our advice released us from all obligations. Jc may be questioned
whether either of the contracting parties envisaged in 1910 that he would
ever be advised to place himself unresisting at the mercy of an unscru
pulous and faithless adventurer who was on the point of usurping the
throne, and the contention of his heirs is that it is inequitable that the
fruit of twenty years consistent friendship should be lost by the old
Shaikh^ hesitation on a single occasion to follow such astonishing advice
The position is concisely expressed in the minutes of a discussion on our
present policy between Gen* WAVELL, Lt.Gen. QUINAM, Majo.Gen. SL2H, H.M.
Minister to the Imperial Persian Government and the British Military
Attache in TEHRAN.
17. ’Me do not wish to repeat the tragic history of
those tribal leaders such as the Shaikh of MOHAmiEilAH to
whom we gave promises which did not save them from the
Central Government. It is not alleged that we did not keep
the letter' cf the promises; it is certain u-at the holders
of the promises believed that we wo eld be able to do for
them things which in fact we could not or at least did not
^ARABISTAH after the fall of Shaikh . KHAZMAL .
17. The author cf the Military Handbook of 1924 maintained chat
’•Shaikh KHAZ’AL was powerful, a fact which was realised b the Persian
Government and the BAKHTIARI and so long as he lived the province of
ARABISTAN might ho-e for peace and prosperity^ while the day of his .
death would be a bad day for iJIAEISTAN and possibly for the British as
well”. In fact the British, apart of course from the cancellation of the
original oil concession, accommodated themselves fairly well, and there
does not appear to be much ground for supposing that public disorder or
inter-tribal trouble have been any greater in KHUZISTMM since the ,Shaikhfe
fall than before. The sufferers have been, as Shaikh KHAZ’AL knew at the
time of the ABADAN purchase they would be, the Arab inhabitants of
‘ARABISTAN themselves . The contrast has been between the new Arab.,
govemiient, however faulty, of Iraq and the foreign, the infinitely more
corrupt rule of a contemptuous authority embodying the insolent nation
alism of ”Pahlevi” Iran. The connecting thread of all Arab discc rbent
is hatred of Persian rule and resistance to Persifioation.
18. In July 1925 the MUHAISIN rose and sacked the MOHAMERAH bazaar,
maddened by a rise in the date tax, by semi-famine conditions and by the
prospect opened by the recent conscription bill. This should have been
part of a larger rising, but the CHA’B Shaikhs could not agre^ and fought
among themselves. The lining was pat down v/ith some bloodshed and the
unhappy KHAZ’AL wes induced to temegraph to his son ’ABDULLAH then still
representing the family 'eights in MOHAl-i ERiiH expressing his disapproval
of the whole affair* Some concessions were however made to the culti
vator^ grievances. ; - y _y

About this item


This file relates to the heirs of Shaikh Khaz‘al [Khaz‘al bin Jabir bin Merdaw Āl Ka‘bī], the late Arab Shaikh of Mohommerah [Khorramshahr], and their requests for British assistance.

The first few items of correspondence concern Shaikh Khaz‘al's eldest son, Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], who is now living in Iraq and who is reported to have requested permission from the British Embassy at Baghdad to enter Iran (most of the correspondence in this file refers to Iran as Persia), for the purpose of personally pressing his claims to property belonging to his father, which had been sequestered by the late Shah [Reza Shah Pahlavi].

The remainder of the file relates to Shaikh Chassib's brother, Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh ‘Abdullāh bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], and his wish to return to live in Persia, apparently peacefully, which is treated with suspicion by British officials. Much of the correspondence discusses whether Shaikh Abdullah, who has taken refuge in Kuwait after an unsuccessful attempt to return to live in Persia, should be given a British pension or an allowance, in order to prevent him from attempting to return to Persia, since it is deemed unlikely that he will receive any compensation from the Persian Government for the loss of his father's property.

Also included in the file are a copy of a document from the Combined Intelligence Centre, Iraq, entitled 'The Sheikhdom of Mohammerah A Short History' and a Foreign Office report entitled 'British Relations with Khazal, Sheikh of Mohammerah'.

The principal correspondents are the following: the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait; the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ; the British Consul, Khorramshahr; the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; the Secretary of State for India; the Foreign Office; His Majesty's Ambassador, Tehran; His Majesty's Ambassador, Baghdad; the Ruler of Kuwait, Shaikh Ahmed al Jabir As-Subah [Shaikh Aḥmad al-Jābir Āl Ṣabāḥ]; Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al.

Extent and format
1 file (252 folios)

The papers are arranged in chronological order from the front to the rear of the file. Circled serial numbers (red for received correspondence; blue/black for issued correspondence) refer to entries in the notes at the rear of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 254; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Additional foliation sequences, one of which is written in pencil and not circled (between ff 3-131 and ff 143-224), and one of which is written in pencil and circled (between ff 1-253), have been superseded and therefore crossed out.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎136r] (271/508), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/5/178, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 17 June 2024]

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