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'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎136v] (272/508)

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The record is made up of 1 file (252 folios). It was created in 15 Mar 1942-17 Aug 1948. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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19* In May 1926 the BANT TAIvIIM wore in trouble for inurdering a
Taxation Officer, and the Commander and 17 men of his escort of 20*
The grievances on this occasion y/ere heavy tax demands and insulting
behaviour to women and Shaikhs. Experiments were made after this in
the installation first of a CHA’B Sheikh, and then of KHAZ’AL's son
’ABDULLAH in some sort of pararaountcy over the Arabs of KHCIZISTAN.
In 1928 ca:ne the turn of the BANI TURUF who rose after violent measures
by the police to enforce the wearing of the ‘Tahlevi hat ” in honour of
a forthcoming visit of the Shah, and also because of oppression by
Persian frontier officials. The BANI TURUF were out for three months
and were only pacified when the revolt in Afghanistan diminished the
Shah’s passion for forcible modifications of dross. In the following
year in view of continued unrest Shaikh ’ABDULLAH ibn Shaikh KHAZ *AL
serving as a Lieutenant in the Persian anny was removed to Tehran.
Already at this date it was reported that the tribes were hoping for a
return of KHAZ’AL’s eldest son CKASSIB. Since 1928 however there In vc
been no major troubles in spite of fury caused by police methods of *
enforcing the abolition of the veil and countless minor pinpricks. In
1935 MOHAMMERAH, PALAHIYA and IUIAFAJIYA lost their traditional Arab
names in favour of new Iranian ones and the Arabs of ARABISTAN had to
give way in the province’s name to the long vanished KHUZ. Yet another
grievance is that the Arabs like other minorities are allowed no schools
of their own. The Arab tribes are leaderless and '■onsciovts of their
weakness: but a visitor to the BANI LAM in. 1942 was astonished at their
The heirs of Shaikh KHAZ ’A T,
20 « Shaikh KHAZ’ALMs considerable harem endowed him with 29
children including 13 sons (see Appendix ’D’). Of these only 3 sons
(CHASSIB, ’ABDUL AZIZ and NIDHAM) and 3 daughters are in the fullest
sense of the term legitimate, but all are entitled to a strmre of their
father’s inheritance. There is a lamentable consensus of opinion that
all the sons are worthless* The eldest Shaikh CHASSIB Ilian SAHDARI-i-
ARFA’A in particular, who was undergoing treatment for syphlis if Paris
at the time of his fayher’s arrest, squandered away his patrimony, and
e ^ wo bis six wives to destitution. His own impoverished state
was the force behind his recent moves to recover his inheritance, though
e is said to have made a better shewing as Governor of KOHAliERAH in
1919* Nevertheless the KHUZISTAN Arabs have a pathetic belief that his
years spent in England somehow give him a standing in English eyes.
21. _ The activities of Shaikh KHAZ’AL’s childien in the years
ollowing their father’s fall are difficult to trace because they v/ere
thought unworthy of record. Several are still living in TEHRAN, others
have settled in BASRA whither in 193^ ’ABDUL MAJID escaped from police
surveillance in TEHRAN to join CHASSIB lately returned from Europe.
Some years back the British Government paid to the heirs a sun of
money representing the. capitalised value of the tax imposed by the Iraq/
Government on their date gardens. (CHASSIB’s share was paid to his
destitute first English wife) and this step has been taken to show
that the British af'-,er all considered themselves morally bound by their
°~: agreement though (presumably) any such deductions v/ere specifically
refuted at the time " J
Recent Developmen ts.
u u F 1 event > a part from an interview Shaikh CHASSIB states
that he had with Mr. AUSTEN C1LTOEPIAIN, no political move would appear
to have been made by any of -che family until after the Allied entry into
Persia in 1941 . The sight of all the tribes, the QASHQAI, the KURDS,
# +

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This file relates to the heirs of Shaikh Khaz‘al [Khaz‘al bin Jabir bin Merdaw Āl Ka‘bī], the late Arab Shaikh of Mohommerah [Khorramshahr], and their requests for British assistance.

The first few items of correspondence concern Shaikh Khaz‘al's eldest son, Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], who is now living in Iraq and who is reported to have requested permission from the British Embassy at Baghdad to enter Iran (most of the correspondence in this file refers to Iran as Persia), for the purpose of personally pressing his claims to property belonging to his father, which had been sequestered by the late Shah [Reza Shah Pahlavi].

The remainder of the file relates to Shaikh Chassib's brother, Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh ‘Abdullāh bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], and his wish to return to live in Persia, apparently peacefully, which is treated with suspicion by British officials. Much of the correspondence discusses whether Shaikh Abdullah, who has taken refuge in Kuwait after an unsuccessful attempt to return to live in Persia, should be given a British pension or an allowance, in order to prevent him from attempting to return to Persia, since it is deemed unlikely that he will receive any compensation from the Persian Government for the loss of his father's property.

Also included in the file are a copy of a document from the Combined Intelligence Centre, Iraq, entitled 'The Sheikhdom of Mohammerah A Short History' and a Foreign Office report entitled 'British Relations with Khazal, Sheikh of Mohammerah'.

The principal correspondents are the following: the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait; the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ; the British Consul, Khorramshahr; the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; the Secretary of State for India; the Foreign Office; His Majesty's Ambassador, Tehran; His Majesty's Ambassador, Baghdad; the Ruler of Kuwait, Shaikh Ahmed al Jabir As-Subah [Shaikh Aḥmad al-Jābir Āl Ṣabāḥ]; Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al.

Extent and format
1 file (252 folios)

The papers are arranged in chronological order from the front to the rear of the file. Circled serial numbers (red for received correspondence; blue/black for issued correspondence) refer to entries in the notes at the rear of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 254; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Additional foliation sequences, one of which is written in pencil and not circled (between ff 3-131 and ff 143-224), and one of which is written in pencil and circled (between ff 1-253), have been superseded and therefore crossed out.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎136v] (272/508), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/5/178, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 20 June 2024]

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