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File 345/1908 Pt 1 'Mohammerah: situation. British assurances to Sheikh.' [‎6v] (17/416)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (203 folios). It was created in 1904-1910. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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provided that they axe able to ^ ^
left to manage their triba a air ^ ^ ^ v;ewg on the p r e Se nt slate of affairs in
He was very frank g ^ wag much interested in the rising of
Southern Persia, and they are me out from a letter received from Ismail Khai£
Kahim Khan in the north, and ead me out f-ma ^ eventg at
of Shahbancara containing chiefs evidently had a poor opinion of the prospects
KSSST SS Kh.“d" Z Medjliss l,.dL “ .Ud. ■ in ta,
SC/StilS! ~d. I— Kmn, in .
most stress was the mistrust by the southern tribes of the bardar Assad as Minister ot
the Interior, and their irre/onciliation to anything which seemed to threaten a
B&k Accor P dhf toX'darKharthe Lur and Kashgai tribes with which he is con
nected thouglft that Sardar Assad wished to institute a Bakhtian sovereignty They
saw Neief Kuli Khan, Minister of the Interior. The Samsam-es-oultaneh at Ispahan,
Ilyas Khan appointed to Behbehan (which is Kubgelu country, and for long under he
Fars Government), one Bakhtiari sent to Yezd and another nominally as head of the
military forces of Fakhr-ul-Mulk, governor of Arabistan, though really to institute a
Bakhtiari surveillance over the Sardar Arfa. , , ((A
He understood that two important personages had fathomed the deigns of the
Sardad Assad, viz., Soulet-ed-Dowleh, likhani of the Kasbgais, and Sardar Arfa,
sheikh of Mohammerah. n , , i V1
Soulet-ed-Dowleh has about 2,000,000 men under his command, and is treated like a
king in his tribe ; he is really a greater chieftain than the Bakhtiari Khans, and did
not relish one of them over him as Minister of the Interior. That was the position
generally taken up by the Kashgai and L<ur tribes, of which the Hayat Daoudis are an
offshoot. The Lurs of Fars were continually making raids on the Bakhtiam, and, as
regards the government of a Bakhtiari Khan in Behbehan over the overlordship o t e
Sardar Assad as Minister of the Interior, they would not submit (tamkin nemikunand).
Haidar Khan also stated that Soulet-ed-Dowleh had written to himself and to other
khans, e.g., of Shahbancara representing his objections to the present regime. ^
There is considerable confirmation from other sources of the views thus assigned to
the Soulet-ed-Dowleh and Sardar Arfa.
Mr. Wilson is constantly referring to Sheikh Khazal’s misgivings as to the
intentions of the Sardar Assad and Bakhtiari interference in Arabistan, evidently
foreseeing future attacks on his own position.
As to the Soulet-ed-Dowleh, it seems quite possible that the bottom of all the
present raiding in Fars, and disagreement between the Governor-General and the
likhani may be the latter’s dislike of the Sardar Assad occupying the position of Minister
of the Interior. A Shirazi well connected with the Kashgai tribe has told us that^ the
Soulet-ed-Dowleh in his correspondence will not give the usual titles of the Minister
of the Interior to Sardar Assad. Mr. Christmas and his party on their way from Shiraz
were stopped by a large force of Kashgais at Dashtarjin, and one of the chiefs asked
Mr. Christmas much to his surprise whether he remembered the story of Charles II.
“We are going to bring back Mohammed Ali Shah, just as they did Charles II.
Mr. Bill, writing on the 1st December, thinks that the Soulet-ed-Dowleh is evidently
determined to show his hostility to the present regime by all the means in his power.
Lawless state of Kuhgelu country .'—Haidar Khan also gave me in the course of
conversation details which show the wild and independent nature of the tribes north
west of Shiraz.
The Boir-Ahmedi tribe, which was alleged to have assaulted M. Passek has, for the
last few years been most unruly. It numbers 7,000 riflemen at least, and they are
cunning fighters (the Kughelu of whom they form a clan number more than 100,000, it
was estimated). ^ Ihe former have kdled all their own prominent chiefs, this year Wali
Khan and Shahin Khan, his son; last year Kerim Khan, Bahadur-ed-Dowleh with
twenty-five men of the tribe who were escorting Zeigham-ed-Dowleh, ex-Ilkhani of the
Kashgais on his way to Behbehan as governor. Zeigham was only released from impri
sonment after great difficulty by Soulet-ed-Dowleh his brother. They live in small
fortresses in the mountains east of Behbehan where they have supplies of provisions
and water. J

About this item


The correspondence discusses the situation regarding British assurances to the Sheikh of Mohammerah. The volume includes a description of the Sheikh's perception that, despite his good behaviour towards the British he has not been afforded the support provided to other Arab sheikhs in the Gulf as in Kuwait or Bahrain. Letters include an account of the explanation given to the Sheikh of Mohammerah that Britain recognized Bahrain and Kuwait as independent, in de jure as well as de facto terms; in contrast the British recognized the Shah's sovereignty over Mohammerah.

The correspondence discusses the practicalities of a customs arrangement between the Shah and the Sheikh of Mohammerah mediated by the British. Letters consider the circumstances under which Britain could intervene militarily to protect its interests in the Karun Valley in the event of disorder arising following interference by the Shah.

The correspondence discusses the scope and form of words of the assurance to be given to the Sheikh of Mohammerah and his male descendants, in the event of disorder following from a change in the Persian regime, be it of a royalist, nationalist, or constitutional nature as well as disputes with Bakhtiari khans.

Correspondents include: Shaikh Khazal Khan, Sardar-i-Afra, the Shaikh of Mohammerah; The Confidential Agent of the Shaikh of Mohammerah; Major Percy Zachariah Cox, Her Majesty's Consul at Bushire; Sir Edward Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; Acting Consul of Mohammerah.

Each part includes a divider which gives the subject and part numbers, year the subject file was opened, subject heading, and list of correspondence references contained in that part by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence.

Extent and format
1 volume (203 folios)

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume. The subject 345 (Mohammerah) consists of two volumes, IOR/L/PS/10/132-133. The volumes are divided into two parts, with each part comprising one volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 203; these numbers are written in pencil and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the one leading flyleaf.

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English in Latin script
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File 345/1908 Pt 1 'Mohammerah: situation. British assurances to Sheikh.' [‎6v] (17/416), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/132, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 14 October 2019]

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