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File 345/1908 Pt 2 'Mohammerah: situation. Sheikh's dispute with the Vali of Basra. decoration for Sheikh. renewed assurances to Sheikh.' [‎14v] (33/566)

The record is made up of 1 volume (281 folios). It was created in 1910-1915. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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4
b 'l g Z^hf biis O^ and our claim for a privileged
nosition for the Sheikh of Mohammerah and for ourselves m rega,rd to him
P In the latter connection Major Haworth reminds me that m dealing with
-'n (<w with either of the other Powers for that matter), we have a very
strom 5 ' and valid argument in the fact that whereas Russia has recognised our
specifl and predominant position in regard to the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Mohammerah
and Ahwaz Ire specifically recognised as Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Ports, and Mohammerah
and its dependencies accordingly fall within the scope of our l ersian Ooas
and Islands Order in Council A regulation issued by the sovereign of Great Britain on the advice of the Privy Council (in modern practice, upon the advice of government ministers). . The Sheikh is not only a riparian ruler but a
maritime Arab Chief controlling a strip of the shores of the Gulf rom
Mohammerah toDilam, and making his influence practically felt almost to
the threshold of Bushire. On these grounds we are not only entitled to
occupy a special position in regard to the Sheikh of Mohammerah, but are
obliged in the pursuit of our time-honoured policy m the Gulf to see that the
Sheikh is maintained in his rights and that the status quo generally is
observed.
Since writing the above I have received a note from Major Haworth, in
which he uses that argument well; I therefore venture to interpolate an
extract :—
“ In his letter, dated 29th August 1907, to His Majesty’s Ambassador at
St. Petersburg, confirming the telegram authorising him to sign the
Anglo-Russian Convention, Sir Edward Grey wrote that the only
reason why the special interests of the British Government in the
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. were not included in the Convention was that other
parts of the Gulf were in territory not Persian.
“ Sir Edward Grey’s letter is written in negative form. By reading it
in the affirmative we get the following :— r lhe Russians admit the
special interests of the British in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , and had the
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. been Persian only they would have included it in
the Convention. It is only for this reason that the Gulf is not
included in the British sphere : therefore the Persian part of the Gulf
is admittedly in the British sphere though not specifically named.
Thus though frequently by a special study of the Convention it is
included in the expression ‘ neutral sphere 1 it is specifically excluded
by the admissions of the Russian Government (also by our own actions
in those waters for more than 100 years).
“Now the territories of the Sheikh of Mohammerah are included in the
Gulf, since the greater part of his southern frontier lies on the Gulf,
the balance of some 45 miles lies on the Shatt-el-Arab, which river
up to Basrah, has always been included in the word ‘ Gulf,’ Basrah
being habitually alluded to as a Gulf port, vide notices of the
British India Steam Navigation Company, and I expect also of the
Russian Steam Navigation Company.
“ It is impossible to cut the Sheikh’s territories in two, and we must
necessarily include him entirely in our sphere of influence, while our
trade interests, together with our capital invested in his country,
make it necessary for us to maintain a very special position towards
him, and make it incumbent on us to see that his special rights are
maintained, to prevent his country coming under the general rot
^ which produces such evil results elsewhere in Persia,
these interests are so great that we have been obliged to give him
certain assurances in order to ensure stability in our trade. These
assurances it is desirable to communicate to the Persian and Russian
Governments.”
13. Persia.—On 8th December 1910 His Majesty’s Minister, Sir Geor
Baiclay, m answer to enquiries from the Persian Government as to the tru
Vide Telegram No. 449, dated of information which had reached the
teelf/rSir E.^fey ^ G9 ° , * e t0 t . 1,e f eCt that SM* Khazal W
/ under the protection of Plis MajesG
taoveinment, made the verbal announcement that “the Sheikh was not
c
*#
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Content

Correspondence including telegrams, hand written letters and printed enclosures, discusses an attack by a Turkish gun-boat on a village - Zain, belonging to the Shaikh of Mohammerah - which lay on the Turkish bank of the Shatt al-Arab waterway. The correspondence outlines the circumstances that led to the quarrel between the Turkish authorities and the Sheikh of Mohammerah, and suggestions that the Porte should be urged to replace the Wali of Basrah with a less aggressive official.

Correspondence discusses the proposal to give the Shaikh of Mohammerah assurances against naval attack, whatever the pretext for such action; letters and telegrams also discuss the award of a decoration (Knight Commander of the Indian Empire) to the Shaikh of Mohammerah.

A letter (dated 7 December 1913) from Percy Zachariah Cox, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , outlines the Government of India's interests in Arabistan including: the oil fields and their future; irrigation; railway enterprises; telegraphs; Russian and German activity.

Correspondents include Percy Zachariah Cox, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; Sir Gerard Lowther, Ambassador to Constantinople; Charles Murray Marling, Ambassador to Tehran; Sir Edward Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign affairs; Francis Edward Crow, H M Consul at Bussorah [Basra]; Arnold Talbot Wilson, H M Consul at Mohammerah; Shaikh Khazal bin Jabir, Shaikh of Mohammerah; Wali of Bussorah; Viceroy of India.

Extent and format
1 volume (281 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume. The subject 345 (Mohammerah: situation) consists of two volumes, IOR/L/PS/10/132-133. The volumes are divided into two parts, with each part comprising one volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 278; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The folio sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the one ending flyleaf.

An additional foliation sequence is also present in parallel throughout; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled.

Written in
English in Latin script
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File 345/1908 Pt 2 'Mohammerah: situation. Sheikh's dispute with the Vali of Basra. decoration for Sheikh. renewed assurances to Sheikh.' [‎14v] (33/566), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/133, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100030525713.0x000022> [accessed 24 October 2019]

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