File 345/1908 Pt 2 'Mohammerah: situation. Sheikh's dispute with the Vali of Basra. decoration for Sheikh. renewed assurances to Sheikh.' [16v] (37/566)
The record is made up of 1 volume (281 folios). It was created in 1910-1915. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
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Memorandum by Major Haworth on our relations will, the Sheikh of
* looirl nt Tliq Maiestv’s Consulate, Mohammerah, on the
-.Cm TqYrrt whiclf he Sheiidi the Resident, His Majesty’s Consul and
HaiHtais^were present ; the Sheikh explained at length the difficulties which
he had had to face during recent times, and asked whether it would not be
sible for him to receive some undertaking, beyond the assurances which
’he td received, in order to secure him from the recurrence of such
situation^, laine^ ^ ^ had been ob l ige d to collect large armies two years
in succession, in order to protect Ins frontiers trom encroachments, and sai
that he was unable year after year to meet the expenditure which was
ent pje referred to the encouragement which he had given and was prepared
to give to British trade, and, with reference to the question ol the Karim
Irrigation, said that he was prepared to give us anything we wanted, but
that he would like to feel that, in return for the various concessions and
other facilities which he was giving, he was obtaining some measure oi
860 He pointed out that, as matters stood, the increase of European firms and
the introduction of British capital into his districts increased his responsi
bilities enormously, and he was held to be answerable for their safety and
welfare, while on the other hand, if his responsibilities had so increased, his
liabilities with regard to internal affairs had fully kept pace and the strain
was getting too great. .
He expressed his gratitude for the assurances vliich had been given him
in October 1910, but explained that matters had progressed since those days,
and he felt that with the new conditions which had arisen, new requirements
had also come to light.
In other words he asked for an extension of the measure of protection
which he was receiving in order that he might obtain an increased feeling
of security for himself and his successors.
The thought of disturbances in his territories on his death also upsets
him and the proviso which we inserted in our assurances of 1910 regarding
his male descendants to the effect that “ so long as . . . they . . .
shall continue to be acceptable to your tribesmen” is also a source of some
uneasiness to him.
The reason for this uneasiness is to a certain extent due to our own
action in recent events. The Persian Government is perhaps getting
accustomed to our relations with the Sheikh, though it cannot be said that
those relations are a source' of pleasure or endear the Shaikh to it; but I
think that there is little doubt that to certain ol his tribes his tendency to
admit the foreigner is far from being a cause of gratification, and they have
only given way to his arguments on the grounds which he has advanced of
the security which results from the friendship with the British and the
protection which they receive in their lands and properties.
This argument has received a considerable blow this year from the
dangei which arose in the spring of a Bakhtiari attack and the consequent
gathering of the Arab clans which was involved. Where, they ask, is the
value of the British friendship if every year we are to be obliged to fight
for our lives and properties ?
It will be remembered that at the time of the Bakhtiari incident 1 pressed
very strenuously that we should be as much as possible in evidence at any
arrangement which might be made between the two parties. My reason
for this is threefold.
First, I wished that the Arabs should see that we are taking steps to
prevent a breach of the peace ; secondly, that if we were obviously the means
of making the peace our future influence over both Arabs and Bakhtiaris
About this item
Correspondence including telegrams, hand written letters and printed enclosures, discusses an attack by a Turkish gun-boat on a village - Zain, belonging to the Shaikh of Mohammerah - which lay on the Turkish bank of the Shatt al-Arab waterway. The correspondence outlines the circumstances that led to the quarrel between the Turkish authorities and the Sheikh of Mohammerah, and suggestions that the Porte should be urged to replace the Wali of Basrah with a less aggressive official.
Correspondence discusses the proposal to give the Shaikh of Mohammerah assurances against naval attack, whatever the pretext for such action; letters and telegrams also discuss the award of a decoration (Knight Commander of the Indian Empire) to the Shaikh of Mohammerah.
A letter (dated 7 December 1913) from Percy Zachariah Cox, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , outlines the Government of India's interests in Arabistan including: the oil fields and their future; irrigation; railway enterprises; telegraphs; Russian and German activity.
Correspondents include Percy Zachariah Cox, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; Sir Gerard Lowther, Ambassador to Constantinople; Charles Murray Marling, Ambassador to Tehran; Sir Edward Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign affairs; Francis Edward Crow, H M Consul at Bussorah [Basra]; Arnold Talbot Wilson, H M Consul at Mohammerah; Shaikh Khazal bin Jabir, Shaikh of Mohammerah; Wali of Bussorah; Viceroy of India.
- Extent and format
- 1 volume (281 folios)
The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume. The subject 345 (Mohammerah: situation) consists of two volumes, IOR/L/PS/10/132-133. The volumes are divided into two parts, with each part comprising one volume.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 278; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.
The folio sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the one ending flyleaf.
An additional foliation sequence is also present in parallel throughout; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled.
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