File 345/1908 Pt 2 'Mohammerah: situation. Sheikh's dispute with the Vali of Basra. decoration for Sheikh. renewed assurances to Sheikh.' [105v] (215/566)
The record is made up of 1 volume (281 folios). It was created in 1910-1915. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
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Basrah, April 23rd, igio.
As a result of the good understanding between the Wali of Basrah and
Sheikh Khazal of Mohammerah, the latter, some three months ago, promised to
aid the Turkish authorities to preserve the peace in this Vilayet, and to hand
over criminals from Turkish territory who sought refuge in the Sheikh’s domains
Khazal also undertook not to let disturbers of the peace cross the river to
Turkey. Last month robbers attacked a house at Manawi, a village close to this
Consulate. It was reported to the authorities that one of the servants was a
servant of Mirza Hamza, the Sheikh’s Agent at Basrah, that he had fled to
Mohammerah, and that the Sheikh declined to give him up. On April 2nd
Kassim Chelmeran, proprietor of the local newspaper “ Idhar-el-Haq ”, was killed
by his labourers at Ajarawiyah, a few miles below this Consulate, on the opposite
side of the river, in Turkish territory, and the murderers sought refuge at
Mohammerah. These people were not handed over to the Turkish authorities.
Besides this, it is reported that there are many criminals, fugitives from justice,'
at Mohammerah, and when Sheikh Khazal is asked to give them up, he denies
their presence there. We had similar grounds of complaint against the authorities
at Mohammerah in connection with the Maghil case, and the murder of Mr.
Glanville in 1906 , as Your Excellency will see from the correspondence on the
subject. Last month Muhammad Bey al Meshri applied to the Turkish authori
ties in the usual way to remove certain fellah from his property at Dowasir. The
authorities tried to carry out the orders given for their removal, but without suc
cess, and the trespassers were supported in their opposition to the local autho
rities by one Muhammad al Chanan, who with the followers lives at Zain on Tur
kish territory. d he Wali sent the Tabur Agassi with 15 gendarmes to arrest
Muhammad al Chanan. This they were not able to do, and were informed in
answer to their demands, that all the people there belonged to Sheikh Khazal
and were unable to come to Basrah, and if the arrest were insisted on, the Agent
of Muhammad Bey al Meshri at Dowasir would be killed in the same manner
as Kassim Chelmeran. The Tabur Agassi returned to Basrah, and informed the
Wah accordingly.^ Muhammad al Chanan seems to have applied to Sheikh
Khazal for protection, and when the latter was requested by the Wali to hand
Chanan over as he was an Ottoman subject residing on Turkish territory, the
Sheikh refused to do so, contending that the man belonged to him. On April
18th, however, Sheikh Khazal brought up Muhammad Chanan with him in his
yacht as a guest to Basrah and wished to call on the Wali with him to discuss
ft But , the u W l all u refu J se , d t0 see either Kh ^I °r Chanan, and demanded
that the la ter should be_handed over in the usual way, and if this were done he
would be pleased to receive the Sheikh. Sheikh Khazal then returned to Moham-
merah with his guest and relations with Basrah are somewhat strained in conse-
quence, Mirza Humza left shortly after for Mohammerah.
In conversation with me the Wali said he had no intention of giving way
'VarmTrk * r ; ^7 ' th ?. S ^ lk jl dl . d . " ot co .ncede his demands he would send the
Marmaris to Zain, which is Turkish territory, to demonstrate, and, if neces
sary, punish Chanan and his retainers for their resistance to his demands.
thomnahl,^ 11 r id . h an- ad S0 2 e ?PP ortunit y of studying Sheikh Khazal and
ATef on f L d T u d c' S ! nfluenc f' vas as a landowner and a tribal
of hi villi T L S, , d t°u f t !l e j ,ver ’ and he thou g h t that most of the Mughtars
of th village from Abul Khasib down were in his pay or pledged to his interests.
He attributed all the river troubles from Basrah to Fao to his sinister
influence, and has, as a precaution, changed or was changing all the local head-
men wo were under the Sheikh s influence, and was putting his own men. He
meant ^0 takHtronTaction. 0 " meanS * ^ diSP ° Sal ° f Sh ° win S Stren S th - and he
His Excellency the Right Hon’ble
Sir G. A. Lowther, Bart.,
Etc -> etc., etc.
F. E. CROW,
Bts Britannic Majesty's Consul, Basrah*
About this item
Correspondence including telegrams, hand written letters and printed enclosures, discusses an attack by a Turkish gun-boat on a village - Zain, belonging to the Shaikh of Mohammerah - which lay on the Turkish bank of the Shatt al-Arab waterway. The correspondence outlines the circumstances that led to the quarrel between the Turkish authorities and the Sheikh of Mohammerah, and suggestions that the Porte should be urged to replace the Wali of Basrah with a less aggressive official.
Correspondence discusses the proposal to give the Shaikh of Mohammerah assurances against naval attack, whatever the pretext for such action; letters and telegrams also discuss the award of a decoration (Knight Commander of the Indian Empire) to the Shaikh of Mohammerah.
A letter (dated 7 December 1913) from Percy Zachariah Cox, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , outlines the Government of India's interests in Arabistan including: the oil fields and their future; irrigation; railway enterprises; telegraphs; Russian and German activity.
Correspondents include Percy Zachariah Cox, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; Sir Gerard Lowther, Ambassador to Constantinople; Charles Murray Marling, Ambassador to Tehran; Sir Edward Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign affairs; Francis Edward Crow, H M Consul at Bussorah [Basra]; Arnold Talbot Wilson, H M Consul at Mohammerah; Shaikh Khazal bin Jabir, Shaikh of Mohammerah; Wali of Bussorah; Viceroy of India.
- Extent and format
- 1 volume (281 folios)
The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume. The subject 345 (Mohammerah: situation) consists of two volumes, IOR/L/PS/10/132-133. The volumes are divided into two parts, with each part comprising one volume.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 278; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.
The folio sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the one ending flyleaf.
An additional foliation sequence is also present in parallel throughout; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled.
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- English in Latin script View the complete information for this record
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