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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎15v] (35/495)

The record is made up of 1 volume (245 folios). It was created in 1909-1911. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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miNTED AT THE FOREIGN OFFICE BY J. \V. HAUK1HON.- 11/4/1911
2
There is, however, a constant possibility that Turkish aggression on Koweit might
take a more direct form than this. Urn Kasr Fort, at the head of Khor
the Sheikh’s territories. There has also been a small post on Warba and Bubian
Islands, which are considered as being undoubtedly Koweit territory. But if the
Turks really wished to encroach on Koweit, they would probable have very little
difficulty in finding a plausible pretext. The embroilments which the Sheikh
occasionally has with neighbouring tribes, such as that with the Muntafik Arabs in
L910, might furnish the Turks with specious grounds for active intervention ; and, with
the levelling tendencies which the present regime has displayed in various parts of the
Empire, it can hardly be doubted that the Turks would welcome a pretext for action if
other conditions were favourable to them. In such an eventuality, we might find
Turkish soldiers at Koweit itself.
This is a small sandy island about 10 miles south-east of Ujair* (the southernmost
point to which His Majesty’s Government regard Turkish sovereignty as extending)
and close to the mainland. It has been occupied by Turkish soldiers or gendarmes m
1909 and 1910. On each occasion the Porte has been informed that the island, is
claimed by the Sheikh of Bahrein, by whose subjects it has been used for fishing
purposes, and that the presence of the Turkish flag constitutes an infringement of the
status quo. On each occasion, in one manner or another, the island has been
evacuated.
These places are all situated on the coast of the Katr Peninsula, and are therefore
regarded by His Majesty’s Government as being outside Turkish jurisdiction. At
El Bidaa, however, the Turks have had a small military post since 1872, and though
His Majesty’s Government have tolerated its existence for many years, they have
never actually acquiesced in it. To the other three places the Turkish authorities, at
one time or other during the past few years, have appointed Mudirs, but the officials
have seldom proceeded to their posts. In 1895, His Majesty’s Government forcibly
dispersed a settlement of Bahrein malcontents, who had settled at Zobara under the
Turkish flag. In 1903 and 1904 there was an attempt to appoint a Mudir to Wakra,
and a British warship was sent to prevent his landing. In 1910 the Vali of Bussorah
appointed a Mudir to El Odeid, but, so far as is known, be has not attempted to proceed
thither.
Except with regard to Koweit and El Odeid, which is in the territory of the
Trucial Chiefs, Turkish aggression threatens places of little intrinsic importance. But
taken cumulatively, and in connection with questions arising in neighbouring parts of
the Empire, their action might have considerable importance, and His Majesty’s
Government might be forced to take local retaliatory measures. It is not possible to
say beforehand what acts of aggression would call for such measures, as this would
largely depend on the circumstances of the moment. But it is desirable now to consider
what form local action in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. by His Majesty’s Government had best take,
what measures would be required of the Indian and Imperial naval and military forces,
and what effect such action would be likely to have on Great Britain s position in Egypt
and India and on her prestige in other Mahommedan countries.
Foreign Office,
has been occupied by a detachment of Turkish soldiers, but it cannot be saiu wn f
confidence that Urn Kasr should really be regarded as within the ill-defined limits of
2. Zakhnuniyeh.
9
o.
El Odeid, Wakra, Zobara,and El Bidaa.
March 6, 1911.
* Ukeir in map, Ojar in Admiralty charts,
f Zabara in map, Zubara in Admiralty charts.

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Content

The volume comprises telegrams, despatches, correspondence, memoranda, and notes, relating to the Turkish occupation of Zakhnuniyah Island, the Ottoman attitude towards piracy cases, and the appointment of officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra.

The discussion in the volume relates to the Turkish occupation of a disused fort (built by Shaikh Ali bin Khalifah, Ruler of Bahrain) on Zakhnuniyah Island and the placing of Ottoman officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra. Correspondence reflects British concerns over Turkish claims to sovereignty in the coastal area of the Qatar Peninsula and how these could best be resisted, particularly in the strategic context of the construction of the Berlin to Baghdad railway. In discussing Zakhnuniyah, reference is made to typed extract of the relevant page (1937) of Lorimer's Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Gazetteer (Geographical and Statistical Volume) which describes how the Dawasir tribe halted there, during the course of their emigration from Najd (see folio 236).

Further discussion surrounds Turkish obstruction of the investigation of cases of piracy in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and the proposed visit of H M S Redbreast to Al Bidaa.

Included in the volume are copies of the Committee for Imperial Defence papers 'Turkish Agression in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. " and 'Local Action in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ' (ff 12-15).

The principal correspondents in the volume include the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); the Viceroy of India; the ruler of Bahrain; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait (Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear); the British Ambassador to Constantinople; His Britannic Majesty's Acting Consul for Arabistan (Lieutenant Arnold Talbot Wilson); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Zachariah Cox); the Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department.

Extent and format
1 volume (245 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

The subject 757 ( Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Turkish Aggression) consists of 1 volume IOR/L/PS/10/162.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 241; these numbers are written in pencil and are located at the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the two leading and ending flyleaves.

A flap is pasted to the verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. of folio 188.

Written in
English in Latin script
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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎15v] (35/495), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/162, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100030529666.0x000024> [accessed 10 December 2019]

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