Skip to item: of 495
Information about this record Back to top
Open in Universal viewer
Open in Mirador IIIF viewer

File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎17r] (38/495)

The record is made up of 1 volume (245 folios). It was created in 1909-1911. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

Transcription

This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.

Apply page layout

SECRET.
[558]
LOCAL ACTION IN THE PERSIAN GULF Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
THE Foreign Office Memorandum, dated the 6th March, 1911 (C.LD. Paper 103-D)>
concerning'Turkish aggression in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , which has been submitted to the
Committee of Imperial Defence, concludes with the expression of an opinion that it is
* desirable now to consider “ what form local action in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. by His Majesty’s
Government had best take ; what measures would be required of the Indian and Imperial
naval and military forces; and what effect such action would be likely to have on Great
Britain’s position in Egypt and India and on her prestige in other Mahommedan
countries.”
In the absence of more definite and direct instructions, and with the object of
answering such of these questions as concern the War Office, the following paper has
been prepared by the General Staff.
Although the suggestion of the Foreign Office does not go beyond purely local action
in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , it must be borne in mind that the outcome of local military action
is not necessarily limited to the locality, but that such action may involve not only
reprisals on the spot, but retaliatory action elsewhere.
It is conceivable, though perhaps unlikely, that this would be the case in the present
instance, and that Brit sh military action, though intended to be confined to the region
of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , might produce far-reaching effects in other directions. In any case,
it seems desirable that military action with the object of bringing pressure to bear upon
another Power should not be initiated without considering the possibility of its leading
to strained relations and war with that Power.
The situation appears to be as follows : The Sheikh of Koweit, whose territory at
the head of the Gulf offers perhaps the best and most natural terminus for the Bagdad
Railway, is not only friendly xo us, but is bound to Great Britain by Treaty engagements
which place him in some measure under our protection. The temporary occupation of
his territory by a British force might therefore seem the obvious step for us to take at
this juncture, and one perhaps as well calculated as any other to enforce our views upon
the Ottoman Government.
On the other hand, while our occupation of Koweit would assert our influence over
the Sheikh and his possessions, and to that extent would uphold British interests and
prestige in the Gulf, it would not cause Turkey any material inconvenience or loss; and
if she acquiesced in our remaining there, possibly under protest, it is not clear what
permanent advantage we should have gained on the withdrawal of our troops.
Forcibly to enter Turkish territory against the wish of its Mahommedan inhabitants
would not only be an act of war against Turkey, but might arouse religious feeling
among the more fanatic of the Mahommedan races. But to occupy territory which we
claim as being under our protection with the good-will of its population is another
matter, and might be agreeable rather than distasteful to the Mahommedans who think
themselves oppressed under Turkish rule. The sympathies of the Arab tribes west of
Koweit, which we should not be unlikely to secure, would further tend to strengthen
our position.
There appear to be no great military difficulties connected with this occupation,
which would, it is assumed, be carried out by troops from India. The Turkish garrisons
in these regions are small, amounting at present, perhaps, to no more than 800 men at
Bussorah and Umkasr, with possibly a post on Warba Island. Further to the south,
garrisoning the province of El Hasa upon the western sliore of the Gulf, there may be
about 1,000 Turkish troops who would have a difficult desert march of from four to five
days through a region by no means friendly to them, were they to move northwards.
It is submitted that the British occupation, if decided on, should be confined to the

About this item

Content

The volume comprises telegrams, despatches, correspondence, memoranda, and notes, relating to the Turkish occupation of Zakhnuniyah Island, the Ottoman attitude towards piracy cases, and the appointment of officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra.

The discussion in the volume relates to the Turkish occupation of a disused fort (built by Shaikh Ali bin Khalifah, Ruler of Bahrain) on Zakhnuniyah Island and the placing of Ottoman officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra. Correspondence reflects British concerns over Turkish claims to sovereignty in the coastal area of the Qatar Peninsula and how these could best be resisted, particularly in the strategic context of the construction of the Berlin to Baghdad railway. In discussing Zakhnuniyah, reference is made to typed extract of the relevant page (1937) of Lorimer's Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Gazetteer (Geographical and Statistical Volume) which describes how the Dawasir tribe halted there, during the course of their emigration from Najd (see folio 236).

Further discussion surrounds Turkish obstruction of the investigation of cases of piracy in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and the proposed visit of H M S Redbreast to Al Bidaa.

Included in the volume are copies of the Committee for Imperial Defence papers 'Turkish Agression in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. " and 'Local Action in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ' (ff 12-15).

The principal correspondents in the volume include the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); the Viceroy of India; the ruler of Bahrain; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait (Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear); the British Ambassador to Constantinople; His Britannic Majesty's Acting Consul for Arabistan (Lieutenant Arnold Talbot Wilson); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Zachariah Cox); the Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department.

Extent and format
1 volume (245 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

The subject 757 ( Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Turkish Aggression) consists of 1 volume IOR/L/PS/10/162.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 241; these numbers are written in pencil and are located at the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the two leading and ending flyleaves.

A flap is pasted to the verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. of folio 188.

Written in
English in Latin script
View the complete information for this record

Use and share this item

Share this item
Cite this item in your research

File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎17r] (38/495), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/162, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100030529666.0x000027> [accessed 17 November 2019]

Link to this item
Embed this item

Copy and paste the code below into your web page where you would like to embed the image.

<meta charset="utf-8"><a href="https://www.qdl.qa/en/archive/81055/vdc_100030529666.0x000027">File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [&lrm;17r] (38/495)</a>
<a href="https://www.qdl.qa/en/archive/81055/vdc_100030529666.0x000027">
	<img src="https://images.qdl.qa/iiif/images/81055/vdc_100000000419.0x000037/IOR_L_PS_10_162_0038.jp2/full/!280,240/0/default.jpg" alt="" />
</a>
IIIF details

This record has a IIIF manifest available as follows. If you have a compatible viewer you can drag the icon to load it.https://www.qdl.qa/en/iiif/81055/vdc_100000000419.0x000037/manifestOpen in Universal viewerOpen in Mirador viewerMore options for embedding images

Use and reuse
Download this image