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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎92r] (188/495)

The record is made up of 1 volume (245 folios). It was created in 1909-1911. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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British relations with Turkey in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
Memorandum on Lieutenant-Colonel Cox’s telegram repeated
in Government of India’s Telegram of 1st December 1910.
10
The immediate question out of which this arises is the desirability of
concluding a treaty with a Sheikh or Sheikhs of the El Katr peninsula as a
bulwark against Turkish aggression. In a Despatch of 22nd August 1910
His Majesty’s Ambassador at Constantinople had written: “ Should His
Majesty’s Government and the Government of India now decide on the
expediency of making such a treaty, there would seem to me no objection
“ from the Constantinople point of view.” The Foreign Office referred to
;the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. to the Government of India, and the
Government of India to Lieutenant-Colonel Cox.
It will be convenient to take Lieutenant-Colonel Cox’s telegram piece
meal :—
I.
“ At the present juncture I find it difficult to discuss question apart from
general Anglo-Turkish situation in the Gulf.
In a letter just received Consul at Basrah writes that new Vali, when
ashed what action he had taken regarding Zakhnuniyeh, replied that
the island is Turkish territory and challenged right of Consul to
discuss it officially or privately. He added that he was astonished
that Consul did not mind his own business which was trade. It is
thus evident that communications made to Porte regarding^ recent
incidents have had no effect, and it seems to me that position has
become impossible and humiliating, and that unless atmosphere is
quickly cleared frequent recurrence of unpleasant incidents is
inevitable. It appears to be generally agreed that temporising
policy, which we have pursued for years past, will not serve the
purpose with the Young Turk regime, and 1 submit that their
assertive attitude and recent attempts to upset status quo give us
strong and imperative grounds for settling issues nowP
The general position is at present as follows. In their letter of 4th
■October last the Foreign Office requested the observations of Viscount
Morley on the terms of a draft despatch which it was proposed to address to
His Majesty’s Ambassador at Constantinople, “respecting the vexatious
treatment of British subjects in Asiatic Turkey, and the number of
“ incidents of political aggression which have recently marked^the conduct
“ of the Ottoman authorities in the region of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .” The draft
despatch, after enumerating the complaints of His Majesty’s Government,
^concluded as follows :—
“ These occurrences, which individually have been the cause of painful
surprise to His Majesty’s Government, have produced in their cumu
lative effect, an unfavourable impression as to the present attitude of
the local Ottoman authorities,—an attitude which appears to be one of
hostility and aggression. .
ppg Majesty’s Government cannot believe that this attitude has the
approval of the Central Government, or is based upon their specific
instructions. I therefore have decided to instruct you to communicate
a translation of this despatch to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, in
order that his Excellency may be fully apprised of the views of His
Majesty’s Government and of their causes of complaint; in ^taking
this step your Excellency should explain that His Majesty s Govern
ment have decided to make friendly representations, believing that
the Ottoman Government will redress the grievances referred to, for
a situation of very considerable gravity would of course arise if they
proved to be the result of deliberate and unfriendly policy.”
S. 41.

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Content

The volume comprises telegrams, despatches, correspondence, memoranda, and notes, relating to the Turkish occupation of Zakhnuniyah Island, the Ottoman attitude towards piracy cases, and the appointment of officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra.

The discussion in the volume relates to the Turkish occupation of a disused fort (built by Shaikh Ali bin Khalifah, Ruler of Bahrain) on Zakhnuniyah Island and the placing of Ottoman officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra. Correspondence reflects British concerns over Turkish claims to sovereignty in the coastal area of the Qatar Peninsula and how these could best be resisted, particularly in the strategic context of the construction of the Berlin to Baghdad railway. In discussing Zakhnuniyah, reference is made to typed extract of the relevant page (1937) of Lorimer's Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Gazetteer (Geographical and Statistical Volume) which describes how the Dawasir tribe halted there, during the course of their emigration from Najd (see folio 236).

Further discussion surrounds Turkish obstruction of the investigation of cases of piracy in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and the proposed visit of H M S Redbreast to Al Bidaa.

Included in the volume are copies of the Committee for Imperial Defence papers 'Turkish Agression in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. " and 'Local Action in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ' (ff 12-15).

The principal correspondents in the volume include the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); the Viceroy of India; the ruler of Bahrain; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait (Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear); the British Ambassador to Constantinople; His Britannic Majesty's Acting Consul for Arabistan (Lieutenant Arnold Talbot Wilson); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Zachariah Cox); the Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department.

Extent and format
1 volume (245 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

The subject 757 ( Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Turkish Aggression) consists of 1 volume IOR/L/PS/10/162.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 241; these numbers are written in pencil and are located at the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the two leading and ending flyleaves.

A flap is pasted to the verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. of folio 188.

Written in
English in Latin script
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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎92r] (188/495), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/162, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100030529666.0x0000bd> [accessed 19 November 2019]

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