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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎93v] (191/495)

The record is made up of 1 volume (245 folios). It was created in 1909-1911. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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So much for theory. In practice it will be observed that His Majesty’s
Government have at times been inclined to go somewhat further. In
January 1902 H.M.S. Pomone landed guns to protect the Sheikh against
an attack threatene 1 by the Amir of Nejd and the Turks, and His Majesty’s
Government, in spite of Turkish protests, refused to remove them so
long as danger of attack existed. And in October 1902 His Majesty’s
Government, while refusing to give the Sheikh guns for his own use, under
took to defend the Koweit district (understanding thereby the district
adjoining or close to the bay) provided that he fulfdled his engagements and
took their advice. Our definition of the status quo seems therefore in practice
to receive this extension, viz., that we should deny to the Turks the means
of asserting even such authority as they may possess.
(2.) “ That we should (a) bring about withdrawal of Turkish military posts
from El Bidaa, Bubiyan, Urn Kasr, Zakhnuniyeh, and Jinnah, and (b)
finally to abolish mudirates at Wakra, dec., and (c) induce Turks to
confine themselves to their recognised possessions at Katif and UjairT
(a) As Bubiyan, Um Kasr, and Jinnah stand on a rather different footing
from the rest of the places mentioned, they may be taken first. Bubiyan is
an island immediately to the north of Koweit, between Koweit bay and the
mouth of the Shatt-al-Arab. It is claimed by the Sheikh of Koweit, mainly
in virtue of the fact that some of his tribes (the Awazim) use it for fishing
purposes. But in 1902 the Turks sent a small guard there, and the
Ambassador at Constantinople was directed to protest. The Turkish
Minister for Foreign Affairs stated that he was not aware of the occupation
of Bubiyan Island, though he knew that troops had been sent to Um
Kasr; and he informed the Ambassador that the real motive of these
proceedings was to keep a debouche for the Bagdad Railway under Turkish
protection, as difficulties had been raised about extending it to Koweit
(1912/02). In 1904 the Government of India recommended either that the
Porte should be called upon to withdraw their post and that we should
ourselves establish a post in behalf of the Sheikh at the northern end of the
island, or that the Porte should be informed that we regard the island as
belonging to the Sheikh, and that unless Turkish troops were withdrawn we
should support him in establishing a post of his owm (402/04). Sir N.
O’Conor was thereupon authorised to repeat his former protest, and, after an
interval of some months, if the post had not been withdrawn, to inform the
Porte in the sense of the Government of India’s second alternative (2G05/04).
The first part of these instructions was carried out, and as regards the action
subsequently to be taken the Government of India made the following
recommendations in their telegram of 26th June 1905 :—
“ Mubarak welcomes idea of establishing post, on condition ( 1 ) that British
Government give him full moral support, inform Porte that they recognise
his claim to Bubiyan, and support him in instituting post ; ( 2 ) Mubarak
asks for following material support; (a) maintenance of Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at
Koweit as practically permanent; ( 6 ) occasional visit of man-of-war to
Koweit and Khor Abdullah ; (c) contribution by British Government of
Rs. 500 for erection of guard quarters, and Rs. 100 a month for guard
maintenance. We regard these terms as fair, and advise full acceptance.
Cost of (c) is less than subsidy sanctioned in your telegram of 17th January
1899. Sheikh suggests more than one post, and visit by Cox to Khor
Abdullah should be sanctioned before number or location of posts is settled.”
The Foreign Office thought that this went rather too far, and the question
was held over for consideration by the Defence Committee in connection
with that of the eventual terminus of the Bagdad Railway (3249/05). In
September 1905 Sir N. O’Conor again spoke to the Turkish Minister for
Foreign Affairs, but without drawing a reply. In August 1906 the Govern
ment of India returned to the charge (1372/06), and the wffiole question
(which does not seem to have been considered by the Defence Committee)
was referred to an inter-departmental committee (Foreign Office, Admiralty,
and India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ), which, in its report dated 2nd October 1907, recom
mended that “ if diplomatic considerations permit . . . the continued
“ occupation of Bubiyan Island by a Turkish post, in derogation of the
A Sheikh’s territorial claims (which have been recognised and supported by

About this item

Content

The volume comprises telegrams, despatches, correspondence, memoranda, and notes, relating to the Turkish occupation of Zakhnuniyah Island, the Ottoman attitude towards piracy cases, and the appointment of officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra.

The discussion in the volume relates to the Turkish occupation of a disused fort (built by Shaikh Ali bin Khalifah, Ruler of Bahrain) on Zakhnuniyah Island and the placing of Ottoman officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra. Correspondence reflects British concerns over Turkish claims to sovereignty in the coastal area of the Qatar Peninsula and how these could best be resisted, particularly in the strategic context of the construction of the Berlin to Baghdad railway. In discussing Zakhnuniyah, reference is made to typed extract of the relevant page (1937) of Lorimer's Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Gazetteer (Geographical and Statistical Volume) which describes how the Dawasir tribe halted there, during the course of their emigration from Najd (see folio 236).

Further discussion surrounds Turkish obstruction of the investigation of cases of piracy in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and the proposed visit of H M S Redbreast to Al Bidaa.

Included in the volume are copies of the Committee for Imperial Defence papers 'Turkish Agression in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. " and 'Local Action in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ' (ff 12-15).

The principal correspondents in the volume include the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); the Viceroy of India; the ruler of Bahrain; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait (Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear); the British Ambassador to Constantinople; His Britannic Majesty's Acting Consul for Arabistan (Lieutenant Arnold Talbot Wilson); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Zachariah Cox); the Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department.

Extent and format
1 volume (245 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

The subject 757 ( Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Turkish Aggression) consists of 1 volume IOR/L/PS/10/162.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 241; these numbers are written in pencil and are located at the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the two leading and ending flyleaves.

A flap is pasted to the verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. of folio 188.

Written in
English in Latin script
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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎93v] (191/495), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/162, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100030529666.0x0000c0> [accessed 29 January 2020]

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