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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎95r] (194/495)

The record is made up of 1 volume (245 folios). It was created in 1909-1911. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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7
conflict, and there seems no doubt that we should insist on Turkish exclusion
r-N from the district south of Ujair. If the Minister for Foreign Affairs, after
studying the question of Zakhnuniyeh and Odied and consulting his
colleagues, does not give categorical instructions for the non-interference of
the Turkish local authorities, it would seem necessary, subject to the views
of His Majesty’s Government, to take a strong fine. For, to the Turkish
mind, Zakhnuniyeh is a sort of stepping stone to El Katr, and perhaps even
to the Trucial coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. . The Turks do not put forward any valid claims to
justify their territorial acquisitions in those parts, but it is not difficult to
glean that they base their claims on the fact that in the beginning of the
16th century a Turkish flotilla, under Piale Pasha, annexed Gwadur, in
South Baluchistan, and sailed up the Gulf, compelling the Arab Chiefs to
acknowledge the sovereignty of the Ottoman Sultan and Caliph. They
further feel that as the dominant Islamic power they have undefined right to
bring under their allegiance and to protect the small Arab Moslem tribes, &c.,
in the Arabian peninsula.
Sir E. Grey’s despatch of 17th October contained the following
passage :—
‘ I do not propose to enter upon a detailed review of British relations with
the Sheikh of Bahrein and the Trucial Chiefs, since the matter is one which
in no wise concerns the Ottoman Government; I need simply observe that
those relations have been the foundation of the maritime peace which has
now been maintained in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. for well-nigh a century.
“ Moreover, as Your Excellency is aware, in November and December 1871
the Ottoman Minister for Foreign Affairs himself gave assurances that his
Government had no intention of attacking or obtaining any supremacv over
Bahrein or the independent tribes on the coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , and
similar assurances had already repeatedly been given to Her Majesty’s
Ambassador at Constantinople.
“ But, apart altogether from the assurances of the Ottoman Government to
which I have referred, Ujair, in the district of El Katif, is the most southerly
point which His Majesty’s Government have ever recognised as being under
Turkish influence on the coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
“ In these circumstances Your Excellency was instructed to request the
Ottoman Government to withdraw the garrison from Zakhnuniyeh on the
ground of terminating a disturbance of the status quo; and your repre
sentations were to be based, not only on the title of the Sheikh of Bahrein to
the island, but also on the fact that it is situated some distance to the south
east of Ujair, the furthest limit of Ottoman jurisdiction.”
III.
“ That having achieved second item, we should make treaties on lines of
Trucial Coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. agreements with Bin Thani, and, if necessary, with
other headmen on the west coast of KatrT
The question of making an agreement was first raised by the Govern
ment of India in 1902 in connection with the desire of Sheikh Ahmed bin
Thani to be taken under our protection, being alarmed at an intimation which
he had received from the Turkish authorities that they intended to send
more troops to those regions. The Government of India were in favour of the
conclusion of an agreement, but in 1903 the idea was shelved because the
abandonment by the Turks of the contemplated mudirates above referred to
made it impossible for His Majesty’s Government to do anything themselves
inconsistent with the status quo. The Government of India, however, in
1904 suggested that without establishing a protectorate it might be justifiable
to make such an agreement with the Sheikh as would secure the
maintenance of the status quo and the exclusion of foreign interference,
the Sheikh undertaking not to enter into relations with, receive the
representative of, or cede territory to any foreign power. (Secret
letter No 77 of 31st March 1904). His Majesty’s Government had at
the time a large number of questions outstanding with the Turkish Govern
ment, and Sir N. O’Conor was unwilling to add to them, being moreover

About this item

Content

The volume comprises telegrams, despatches, correspondence, memoranda, and notes, relating to the Turkish occupation of Zakhnuniyah Island, the Ottoman attitude towards piracy cases, and the appointment of officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra.

The discussion in the volume relates to the Turkish occupation of a disused fort (built by Shaikh Ali bin Khalifah, Ruler of Bahrain) on Zakhnuniyah Island and the placing of Ottoman officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra. Correspondence reflects British concerns over Turkish claims to sovereignty in the coastal area of the Qatar Peninsula and how these could best be resisted, particularly in the strategic context of the construction of the Berlin to Baghdad railway. In discussing Zakhnuniyah, reference is made to typed extract of the relevant page (1937) of Lorimer's Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Gazetteer (Geographical and Statistical Volume) which describes how the Dawasir tribe halted there, during the course of their emigration from Najd (see folio 236).

Further discussion surrounds Turkish obstruction of the investigation of cases of piracy in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and the proposed visit of H M S Redbreast to Al Bidaa.

Included in the volume are copies of the Committee for Imperial Defence papers 'Turkish Agression in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. " and 'Local Action in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ' (ff 12-15).

The principal correspondents in the volume include the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); the Viceroy of India; the ruler of Bahrain; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait (Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear); the British Ambassador to Constantinople; His Britannic Majesty's Acting Consul for Arabistan (Lieutenant Arnold Talbot Wilson); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Zachariah Cox); the Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department.

Extent and format
1 volume (245 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

The subject 757 ( Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Turkish Aggression) consists of 1 volume IOR/L/PS/10/162.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 241; these numbers are written in pencil and are located at the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the two leading and ending flyleaves.

A flap is pasted to the verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. of folio 188.

Written in
English in Latin script
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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎95r] (194/495), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/162, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100030529666.0x0000c3> [accessed 29 January 2020]

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