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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎97r] (198/495)

The record is made up of 1 volume (245 folios). It was created in 1909-1911. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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British Interests on the Coast of Arabia, Koweit,
Bahrein, and El Katr.
The following extract from a letter of the 5th January 1903, from the
Government of India to the Naval Commander-in-Chief, gives a succinct
statement of the political geography of the Arabian coast of the Persian
‘Gulf. The places named are marked in the attached copy of Cuvzon’s map.
“ From Kow T eit to Katif town Ottoman rule has long been recognised, and,
in fact, though this has never been explicitly admitted, it would he
difficult to dispute Turkish claims to exercise jurisdiction as far as,
and inclusive of, Ojair. South of this place, and on the El Katr
peninsula, His Majesty’s Gevernment have declined to recognise
Turkish sovereignty, though the Turks actually have a garrison at
El Bidan
“ From and inclusive of Odeid eastward, the coast belongs to the Trucial
Chiefs as far as Ras-el-Kheima. Thence, starting from Bams south
of Tibba, round the Musandim promontory, to Dibba, the country is
in the occupation of the Shihooh tribe. Claims have been put forward
by the Sultan of Muscat to exercise jurisdiction over this tract, but it
has been held that his ascendancy is so indeterminate that it need not
be considered.
From Dibba southward to Khor Kalba, the Batineh coast is regarded as
part of the territory of the Sheikh of Shargah. The local Sheikhs
have from time to time invoked the assistance of the Sultan of Muscat,
but the Government of India have decided that no interference by
Muscat can be admitted; that this portion of the coast is subject to
the maritime truce; and that the Sheikh in power is bound by the
terms of the agreements which have from time to time been concluded
with the Trucial Chiefs.”
The British Government has treaties with the Sheikhs of Koweit and
Bahrein, and with the Trucial Chiefs mentioned in the Government of
India’s letter quoted above.
The Koweit Treaty (23rd January 1899) provides that the Sheikh shall
not receive the Agent or representative of any Foreign Power without the
consent of the British Government, and shall not sell, lease, mortgage, or
give for occupation any portion of his territory to any Foreign Power or the
subject of any Foreign Power. Simultaneously with the signing of the
Treaty, the Resident wrote to the Sheikh promising him the good offices of
the British Government, and impressing on him as a condition of the Agree
ment that it should be kept secret and not divulged without our consent.
The Treaty was accompanied with a gift of Rs. 15,000.
The treaties with Bahrein and the Trucial Chiefs are on the same lines ;
but provide not only that the Chief shall receive no representative of any
Foreign Power, but that he shall not enter into any agreement or hold any
correspondence with any Foreign Power. And, as regards the cession of
territory, these treaties provide that the Chief will not sell, lease, &c., any
territory , except to the British Government. These treaties contain no
promise of protection or good offices.
It may be added that we have a treaty with Muscat (of 1891) by which
the Sultan agrees not to cede, sell, mortgage. &c., any portion of his
* territory save to the British Government, and that along the southern coast
of Arabia, west of Dhofar, where Muscat territory ends, we have agreements
with the Sheikhs, along the coast as far as Aden and the Red Sea, binding
them not to hold correspondence or enter into agreements with loicign
Powers. This stipulation in the majority of cases is accompanied by one
precluding the Chief from parting with territory.
Koweit.
Koweit has no immediate and direct relation with the question of the
policy to be pursued on the coast south of Ojair where lurkish so\ereignty
S. S. 4.

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Content

The volume comprises telegrams, despatches, correspondence, memoranda, and notes, relating to the Turkish occupation of Zakhnuniyah Island, the Ottoman attitude towards piracy cases, and the appointment of officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra.

The discussion in the volume relates to the Turkish occupation of a disused fort (built by Shaikh Ali bin Khalifah, Ruler of Bahrain) on Zakhnuniyah Island and the placing of Ottoman officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra. Correspondence reflects British concerns over Turkish claims to sovereignty in the coastal area of the Qatar Peninsula and how these could best be resisted, particularly in the strategic context of the construction of the Berlin to Baghdad railway. In discussing Zakhnuniyah, reference is made to typed extract of the relevant page (1937) of Lorimer's Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Gazetteer (Geographical and Statistical Volume) which describes how the Dawasir tribe halted there, during the course of their emigration from Najd (see folio 236).

Further discussion surrounds Turkish obstruction of the investigation of cases of piracy in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and the proposed visit of H M S Redbreast to Al Bidaa.

Included in the volume are copies of the Committee for Imperial Defence papers 'Turkish Agression in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. " and 'Local Action in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ' (ff 12-15).

The principal correspondents in the volume include the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); the Viceroy of India; the ruler of Bahrain; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait (Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear); the British Ambassador to Constantinople; His Britannic Majesty's Acting Consul for Arabistan (Lieutenant Arnold Talbot Wilson); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Zachariah Cox); the Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department.

Extent and format
1 volume (245 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

The subject 757 ( Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Turkish Aggression) consists of 1 volume IOR/L/PS/10/162.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 241; these numbers are written in pencil and are located at the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the two leading and ending flyleaves.

A flap is pasted to the verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. of folio 188.

Written in
English in Latin script
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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎97r] (198/495), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/162, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100030529666.0x0000c7> [accessed 29 January 2020]

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