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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎97v] (199/495)

The record is made up of 1 volume (245 folios). It was created in 1909-1911. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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2
is held to end, except in so far as our proceedings at Koweit influence the
attitude of the Turks towards us in El Katr and Bahrein.
The questions at issue at present with the Turks at Koweit are : —
-iniV ^he status of our Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. . —Major Knox was sent in August
1904 to Koweit m connection with the difficulties arising from Turkish
complaints that the Sheikh was supporting Ibn Snoud (the Wahabi) who
had defeated Ibn Eashid (the Turkish protege) in Nejd, and whose successes
seem suffident to threaten the continuance of Turkish rule in the interior,
the Turks, who apparently believe that we are instigating the Sheikh of
Koweit to support Ibn Saoud, at once complained of Major Knox’s appoint
ment. We replied that the appointment was not a permanent one but
that we reserved the right of sending an officer to Koweit at our “ uncon-
troUed discretion ” to report and “ensure the continuance of the modus
mvendi which had been arrived at. We also instructed the Government
ol India (26th November 1904) that Major Knox might remain at Koweit
lor the present, that he was to he withdrawn after a “ reasonable interval,”
and that before leaving he was to inform the Sheikh that he would repeat
his visits, and that the date of his return would depend on the course of
events. The present position is governed by these instructions. It should
be added that the Resident recently reported that the Sheikh of Koweit was
going with Ibn Saoud to Basra to come to terms with the Turks. Other reports
however, say that the Turks are organising a military expedition on a large
scale to put down Ibn Saoud and the Wahabi movement. Major Knox’s
instructions are that he is not to say or do anything to connect us even
in directly with the warfare now in progress in the interior, and that he is to
repeat to the Sheikh the warning to avoid entanglements in the interior
given him by Lord Curzon personally when he visited Koweit.
(2.) Bulnan Island.—The island is apparently a desolate mud-flat, where
Kovv< it fishermen have certain rights. It is of importance as commanding
one bank of the Khor Abdullah, which will presumably be the channel of
•approach to the harbour at the terminus of the Baghdad Railway. In 1902
Sir JV. O Conor protested against the action of the Turks in placing a military
™ ( .?L SOm , e 10 meD ’ relleved ^ intervals from Eao) on the island In
May i904 Sir N. O’Conor reverted to the subject, saying that unless the
post was withdrawn, it would be necessary to ra : se the question “ in a more
unpleasant The action to be taken, in event of a Turkish failure to
vo untarily withdraw this post, has been reserved for consideration. The
proposal of the Government of India was either to insist on Turkish with
drawal or to allow the Sheikh to establish a post of his own.
Bahrein.
Our relations with Bahrein are governed by the treaty already mentioned.
b he ‘ sl i a ' ld « situated in a deep bay ; it faces on the west the Turkish district
ot Katif, and on the east, the peninsula of El Katr, in which we do not
recognise lurkish authority, 'the place is of importance as the centre of
BHhTI r T1 ° f tt l e Gulf ' U is ‘• ,lso tbe -e^ence of a number of
Butisb Indian traders, whose export trade in dates from Katif has recently
f ^ some difficulty with the Turkish Government owing to the extortion's
or the local Turkish authorities.
We do not recognise Turkish authoiity in Bahrein. In 1895 we forcibly
dispersed, m the interests of the Bahrein Sheikh, a settlement of malcontents
who had established themselves at Zobara, on the Katr coast, under the
uikishflag. the Turks protested, but His Majesty’s Government stated
m reply that they did not recognise Turkish jurisdiction on the Katr coast
and must repeat once more that all Turkish claims to Bahrein, which is
under Bie protection of the Queen of England, are totally inadmissible ”
(Note Verbale of 12th August 1895.) ^ 1 U1 slol e-
In 1901 Sir N. O’Conor, reporting on the action of the Government of
India in recognising the Sheikh’s eldest son as his successor, said that any
arrangement which strengthened our authority over Bahrein must be regarded
uitli satisfaction, and added that he would welcome the news that a British
oi British Indian subject had been appointed Director of the Bahrein Customs
as a material proot ot our authority over the island. Sir N. O’Conor further

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Content

The volume comprises telegrams, despatches, correspondence, memoranda, and notes, relating to the Turkish occupation of Zakhnuniyah Island, the Ottoman attitude towards piracy cases, and the appointment of officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra.

The discussion in the volume relates to the Turkish occupation of a disused fort (built by Shaikh Ali bin Khalifah, Ruler of Bahrain) on Zakhnuniyah Island and the placing of Ottoman officials in Zubara, Odeid and Wakra. Correspondence reflects British concerns over Turkish claims to sovereignty in the coastal area of the Qatar Peninsula and how these could best be resisted, particularly in the strategic context of the construction of the Berlin to Baghdad railway. In discussing Zakhnuniyah, reference is made to typed extract of the relevant page (1937) of Lorimer's Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Gazetteer (Geographical and Statistical Volume) which describes how the Dawasir tribe halted there, during the course of their emigration from Najd (see folio 236).

Further discussion surrounds Turkish obstruction of the investigation of cases of piracy in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and the proposed visit of H M S Redbreast to Al Bidaa.

Included in the volume are copies of the Committee for Imperial Defence papers 'Turkish Agression in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. " and 'Local Action in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ' (ff 12-15).

The principal correspondents in the volume include the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); the Viceroy of India; the ruler of Bahrain; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait (Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear); the British Ambassador to Constantinople; His Britannic Majesty's Acting Consul for Arabistan (Lieutenant Arnold Talbot Wilson); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Zachariah Cox); the Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign Department.

Extent and format
1 volume (245 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

The subject 757 ( Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Turkish Aggression) consists of 1 volume IOR/L/PS/10/162.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 241; these numbers are written in pencil and are located at the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the two leading and ending flyleaves.

A flap is pasted to the verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. of folio 188.

Written in
English in Latin script
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File 757/1909 'Persian Gulf:- Turkey and Turkish aggression (Occupation of Zakhnuniyeh Island. Attitude in piracy cases. Mudirs at Zubara, Odaid and Wakra) British Relations with Turkey in Persian Gulf' [‎97v] (199/495), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/162, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100030529666.0x0000c8> [accessed 20 November 2019]

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