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‘Military report on the British Protectorate of Aden and the Amir of Dala’s territories, with special reports on certain other tribes and adjoining border districts’ [‎13v] (31/490)

The record is made up of 1 volume (243 folios). It was created in 1905-1908. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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but its ultimate inclusion appears probable. It may therefore be said
that the British Protectorate is bounded on the north by the extensive and
impassable desert tract known as the Rubh al Khali. The eastern frontier
is also unexplored. It is known to consist of mountainous and desert
country, little inhabited or cultivated, in which the principal routes run
southwards towards the sea coast.
Mountain systems.
With the exception of the comparatively small stretches of sandy
maritime plain to the south, the whole of the Aden Protectorate is moun
tainous. Although doubtless forming part of a system of chains extending
across southern Yemen from east to west of which some are stiU very
clearly tiaceable, the connection between the different chains is now hard
to follow, isolated masses in parts running north and south and forming
a most intricate mass of rugged peaks It is only proposed to touch very
generally on these, as a reference to the map will convey a far clearer
idea than any written description. In the Subehi country, in the south
west corner, the maritime lange bordering the Red Sea roughly follows
the line of the coast at a distance of about ten miles inland, in several
parallel lines. The mountains are very rugged and almost devoid of
vegetation and as a rule, difficult of ascent. The principal peaks are, the
curious point of Sin Samfa (Sin Ar. tooth) 2,821 ft., J. Wusid, called in the
charts Barn Hill, 1,972 ft., and the almost isolated masses of J. am Missas
2,043 feet and J. Kharaz 2,754 feet, the, end of the maritime range abutting
on the sea coast. Further inland, to the east, a succession of ranges
border the numerous wadis draining south towards Turan, rising about
1 000 feet above the level of the river-beds, while to the north-west, on the
boundary line of the Protectorate, a group of high mountains, of a general
altitude of 4,000 to 6,oco feet occurs, of which the most noticeable peaks
ate the isolatf d range of J. Hawab, J. Rasin in Turkish territory, and
the long ridge of J. Jardad which forms the beginning of the system alluded
to before, running roughly east and west across Southern Yemen. The
mountains at this point form a water-shed, the wadis in British territory
(with one or two exceptions) draining south, while those on the Turkish
side, of which the W. am Ghail is the principal, drain west to the Red
To the east of Jardad and J. am Ibdar, the Zureki hills, of which the
principal peak is J Munif, 6,856 feet, cut through by the Wadis 'Ubil
and Adim, carry on the scarp towards the long ridge of J. Iraf, which
turning almost north, on the west bank of the Wadi Ma’din, connects
this line with the highest range in Southern Yemen, that extending in
an unbroken line from J. Sabar near Taiz to the Tiban, and which is the
most fertile part of South Arabia. The mountain wall from Hawab east
wards is roughly the north-west boundary of the British Protectorate, the
foot-hills of the main ranges, and in a few cases, the exterior ridge only,
being in Subehi territory.
North of the high J. Sabar range, of which the extremities, east of
the Kubati and Yusufi mountains, are in the possession of the Juheli
Subehi and’Amri Haushabi respectively, is the ’Amri cou:tYy, consisting
of broken low hills. To their north, another high range runs east and
west, its western extremity curving to the south ; from J. Jalisa on the

About this item


The volume, a military report compiled in the Intelligence Branch of the QMG’s [Quartermaster General’s] Department and published at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla, is comprised of several sections, as follows:

  • section I, a Military Report on the British Protectorate of Aden , prepared by Captain Ernest Arthur Frederick Redl (ff 10-52), and including chapters on: geography; ethnography, with details of the different tribes living in the Protectorate; climate and health; natural resources; harbours and anchorages; communications; fortresses; history; native inhabitants’ administration; the military organisation and strength of native inhabitants; and political relations. A handwritten note is included in the report (f 49), and concerns the entitlements of Protectorate Chiefs to salutes, and issue to them of arms and ammunition, 1906;
  • section II, a Report on the Amir of Dala’s [Ad Dali’] Territories , prepared by Major J K Tod (ff 54-118), and including chapters on: geography; ethnography; climate and health; resources; communications; forts and fortified posts; history; administration, and military. Following the report is a gazetteer providing greater detail of the sixteen districts in Dala, including: topography; ruling families and allegiances; villages and population figures, including numbers of fighting men; water resources; agricultural and industrial activities;
  • section III, Reports on Haushabi, Subehi and Yafa’i Tribes, Turkish and North Western Border Districts and the River Tiban , divided into chapters, all prepared by Captain Redl unless otherwise specified, on: 1) the Haushabi [al-Ḥawshabī] (ff 120-130), and including a handwritten note, dated December 1905 (f 122), noting that the Sultan of Haushabi has agreed to abide by an agreement of 1895; 2) the Subehi tribes near the Turkish border (ff 130-144); 3) the districts of Turkish Yemen adjoining the British boundary (ff 144-165); 4) Tribes of the north-west frontier (ff 165-172); 5) a memorandum of the Yafa’i [Yāfi‘] tribe, prepared by Captain Gonville W Warneford (ff 172-183); 6) The Wadi Tiban (ff 184-185);
  • section IV, Routes (ff 186-228), detailing numerous routes between key points in Aden province, noting: distances; stages; nature of the terrain and its suitability for different modes of transport; available resources en route; territories crossed. A (duplicated) confidential memorandum, written by Captain G A F Sanders of the Aden Brigade, dated 24 August 1905, containing additional information for stages 5 and 6 of route 5 has been added to the volume (ff 195-198);
  • appendix I, a brief statement on inland trade between Aden and the Arabian mainland, 1903 (ff 229-230).

The volume is extensively illustrated throughout with fold-out maps, plans and illustrations, prepared by the Intelligence Branch (I.B.) and all of which describe the topography and terrain of the region. There are three maps included in a pocket at the end of the volume: a map of the Aden Protectorate (f 242); a view from the ruined village of Lakmat Magharam about one-and-a-half miles west of Sanah [Ṣanʻā'] (f 240); and a road sketch from Khalla through Awabil [‘Awābil] to the upper plateau of the Rubiatein [Ar Rubay‘atayn] tribe (f 241).

Extent and format
1 volume (243 folios)

The volume is arranged in four sections (numbered I-IV), with a single appendix. Sections I-III are arranged in numbered chapters while section IV is arranged in twenty-three numbered routes. The volume’s contents page (ff 6-8) lists the sections and their respective chapters/routes, with page numbers referring to the volume’s printed pagination system. A general index (ff 231-238) lists placenames referred to in the volume in alphabetically ascending order, also with page numbers referring to the volume’s printed pagination.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1 and terminates at the back cover with 243; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the file contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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‘Military report on the British Protectorate of Aden and the Amir of Dala’s territories, with special reports on certain other tribes and adjoining border districts’ [‎13v] (31/490), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/20/59, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 24 February 2020]

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