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File 1356/1912 Pt 1 'Turco-Persian Frontier:- negotiations at Constantinople.' [‎59r] (127/885)

The record is made up of 1 volume (436 folios). It was created in 7 Feb 1912-25 Sep 1912. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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•p'ovided for by article 8 of the Treaty of Erzeroum, which stipulates that the
tribes, if genuinely dependent on Persia, must return there. I would also invite
A reference to p. 29 of my memorandum; but I propose to discuss the point more
™ comprehensively in my further paper respecting the jurisdiction of the Sheikh on the
right bank of the Shatt-et-Arab, where, according to the Explanatory Note, Persia
can, under no pretext whatever, lay claim to any territory : and I would only add
here that my apprehension is that Turkey may possibly insist on more drastic
administrative intervention by Turkish officials, in such a manner as might prove
distasteful to the Sheikh of Mohammerah. — A. P.
Again, the Ka’ab Muhaisin, &c., are not wandering or pastoral tribes, but agri
cultural communities seldom changing their abode, and generally owning at least a
share in the lands cultivated by them.
Lieutenant Wilson (p. 58 of his precis) says that annually many of them are
to be found in Persia 100 miles distant from their homes in Turkey. — A. P.
It should also be borne in mind, in considering the possible inconvenience that
the Turks may bring about by agitating this question, that the Persian tribesmen
settled in Turkey are very numerous, and that their expulsion would so completely
dislocate the whole agricultural system of the Bussorah vilayet, to the detriment of
the wealthy Turkish landowners concerned, that it is quite improbable that the Turks
would in anv case proceed to such extremes. Moreover, the tribes are numerically so
powerful and so closely united by financial and other ties to the resident Turkish
population that it would hardly be possible for the durks to take any action^ without
resort to force 'on a large scale, a course which would almost certainly bring on a
general conflagration.
The tribesmen on the other hand are mostly adscripti glebce in one way or
another, and would be extremely loth to leave the lands with which they have been
long associated, and of which in many cases they have become part owners.
" For the legal aspect of the question I would invite reference to Lieutenant
Wilson’s precis (p. 55 et seg.) which deals with the subject fully from this point of
view, and seems to give a very fair representation of the present state of affairs.
1 cannot quite agree with all Lieutenant U ilsons conclusions, but I pi efer to
develop my arguments in mi) separate paper on the subject, aftei consultation unth
the Legal Advisers as to how far, if at all, the Treaty of 1875 is applicable—A. P.
As regards the attitude which His Majesty’s Government should adopt towards
the question, I should like to hear the sheikh’s considered views on the subject before
makino - any definite recommendations, but, speaking generally, 1 think that the
problem is one which requires no further special treatment by treaty or otherwise, as
the existing stipulations of the treaty of 1875 (Aitchison, vol. xii, Appendix ^0)^
should suffice to safeguard the legitimate interests of the Sheikh of Mohammerah, if
fairly enforced by Turkey. _ . , , ,
The question of reciprocity on the part of I ersia, as things stand, at present,
does not arise, on this part of the frontier at any rate, the number of lurks residing
on Persian soil being infinitesimal. . . .
Finally, it should be remembered that from the local point ot view the adminis
trative system of Turkey and Persia have been freshly superimposed, during the last
two decades, after being dormant for centuries, upon a far more ancient and effective
tribal system common to both banks of the river, and that whatever may be settled
between the two Governments, the Arab communities on either side of the river will
continue to be guided by tribal law and customs rather than by complicated foreign
systems of law administered by venal officials, and wholly unsuited to their simple
needs.
Note 8.
Page 46 : The Position and Status of the Hawizeh District.
It will be noted that the maps at pp. 2 , 16, and 45 alike refrain from placing
Hawizeh in Turkish territory.
[ 2506 m —1]

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Content

The volume discusses the disputed Turco-Persian Frontier, particularly at Mohammerah, and the negotiations in Constantinople to attempt to settle it.

The correspondence focuses on:

  • the differences of opinion over the actual boundary at Mohammerah, including several maps demonstrating these differences;
  • movements of Turkish and Russian troops;
  • ownership of the Shat-el-Arab and questions of access for navigation;
  • copies of treaties, correspondence and memoranda dating back to 1639 relating to the question of the Turco-Persian frontier.

The principal correspondents in the volume are the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); the Secretary of State for India (Robert Offley Ashburton Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Sir Percy Zachariah Cox); the British Ambassador to Constantinople (Sir Gerard Lowther); the British Ambassador to Russia (Sir George Buchanan); the Viceroy of India (Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst); the British Ambassador to Tehran (Sir George Head Barclay); representatives of the Foreign Office (particularly Alwyn Parker) and the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; and Arthur Talbot Wilson, on special duty in relation to the Turco-Persian Frontier.

This volume is part one of two. Each part includes a divider which gives the subject and part numbers, the year the subject file was opened, the subject heading, and a list of correspondence references contained in that part by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence.

Extent and format
1 volume (436 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

The subject 1356 (Turco-Persian Frontier) consists of 2 volumes, IOR/L/PS/10/266-267. The volumes are divided into two parts, with each part comprising one volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 436; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the leading and ending flyleaves.

Written in
English and French in Latin script
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File 1356/1912 Pt 1 'Turco-Persian Frontier:- negotiations at Constantinople.' [‎59r] (127/885), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/266, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100036171270.0x000080> [accessed 26 January 2020]

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