File 1356/1912 Pt 1 'Turco-Persian Frontier:- negotiations at Constantinople.' [59v] (128/885)
The record is made up of 1 volume (436 folios). It was created in 7 Feb 1912-25 Sep 1912. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
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From the report of the mediating commissioners of 1850' ::: ' it is plain that they
never visited Hawizeh, or the frontier line which they so airily attempted to lay
down, and that they expressly placed it on record that they had fixed no fronthw
in this direction pending further investigations. \
In any case, Colonel Williams’ diagram (opposite p. 25) is hopelessly inaccurate ;
he shows the Jaab River (Suwaib or Karkheh) as running through Hawizeh, instead
of some 16 miles to the west of it. The mere fact that he calls it the Jaabf River
is something of an admission. Major Rawlinson’s map at p. 16 is equally vague, and
he places Hawizeh many miles out of position.
The commissioners are full of explanations of their boundary line in the neighbour
hood of the Shatt-el-Arab, but I have failed to find any remarks dealing with the
boundary round Hawizeh. Had the commissioners realised the nature of the boundary
they purported to lay down they could scarcely have failed to offer some explanations
in regard thereto, but they are silent—as also, it seems, were the Turkish and Persian
It should be noted, too. that Sir A. H. Layard, who seems to have been biased on
the whole in favour of Turkey, suggested a boundary which ran west of Hawizeh
(pp. 8 and 53).
He was doubtless glad to fix it there from his personal experiences of the district,
in which respect he seems to have had an advantage over the commissioners. His
views have been published, and may carry weight with the Turks.
It would appear very inexpedient to appeal to Sir H. Layard’s published views
respecting the Hawizeh region when in the same passage he has expressed views
regarding the Mohammerah region so decidedly unfavourable to Persia. A. P.
From a reference to p. 10 of Wilson’s precis, it will be seen that in no case can
“ Bussorah and_ its acknowledged dependencies” be held to have included in 1639 the
district of Hawizeh, which was then undisputedly Persian.
In 1727, moicover (see p. 55, precis), it was provided by treaty that the province
of Hawizeh should be ceded to Persia, though it does not appear that the Turks had
ever taken it. From p. 8 of the precis, it will he seen that about 1600 the Ka’ab
applied to the Vali of Hawizeh for assistance against the Afshars ; it was then a
This is a mistake : by the Treaty of 1727, Hawizeh was ceded to Turkey, not
Persia; but see enclosure in Sir G. Lowthers despatch No. 341 of the 23rd Anvil
1912.—A. P. J ^ >
There is no evidence—it is not even alleged—that the Turks have ever raised a
penny of revenue out of Hawizeh, or had a military post there. On the other hand
there is strong evidence that Hawizeh has been ^ under Persia and paying revenue
more or less continuously since 1600. It is of importance also to note that in 1877,
when war threatened to break out between Turkey and Persia, the main Persian
army was collected at Bisaitin, a village a few miles north of Shuaib and north
west of Hawizeh, where the Governor-General was occupied in coercing a refractory
sheikh of the Ma’adanJ (for remarks on whom see “Gazetteer,” p. 1254) & The precise
position of Bisaitin has not yet been fixed, but it is a recognised point at or near the
Hawizeh frontier, as locally observed. At the time in question there was no suggestion
that the force was beyond the border of Arabistan, though it is on record that the
presence of troops at Mohammerah was regarded as a menace (Enclosure 5 , idem).
Since 1877 the Persians have constantly sent armed forces to collect taxes, &c. and,
as far as I know, on no single occasion has any objection been raised by Turkey
The most recent occasions are 1905 and 1908 (see pp. 20 and 21 of precis)
With reference to p. 45 of the Foreign Office memorandum, as the Turks have never
occupied the district, there can be no question of their giving it up or abandonino- it; as
far as I am aware, they have never seriously laid claim to it, and it has been from time
immemorial m the hands of Turkey and separated from Turkey by a wide marsh (see
resident’s letter of the 6 th May). v
. ^ defer dealing with the sinuosities and the prolongation of this line in the direction of
Hawizeh untd our engineers have made their investigation of this line in the above-mentioned spots-
Chaab ^ ArablC e 9 mvalents of “ K, “ J, ’ and “ Ch ” are commonly interchangeable, thus Kaab = Jaab =
X See sub-enclosure 1 to enclosure 3 of Resident’s letter of April 8, 1912. to Foreign Department, a copy
of which was sent to His Majesty s Foreign Office. & f i
About this item
The volume discusses the disputed Turco-Persian Frontier, particularly at Mohammerah, and the negotiations in Constantinople to attempt to settle it.
The correspondence focuses on:
- the differences of opinion over the actual boundary at Mohammerah, including several maps demonstrating these differences;
- movements of Turkish and Russian troops;
- ownership of the Shat-el-Arab and questions of access for navigation;
- copies of treaties, correspondence and memoranda dating back to 1639 relating to the question of the Turco-Persian frontier.
The principal correspondents in the volume are the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); the Secretary of State for India (Robert Offley Ashburton Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Sir Percy Zachariah Cox); the British Ambassador to Constantinople (Sir Gerard Lowther); the British Ambassador to Russia (Sir George Buchanan); the Viceroy of India (Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst); the British Ambassador to Tehran (Sir George Head Barclay); representatives of the Foreign Office (particularly Alwyn Parker) and the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; and Arthur Talbot Wilson, on special duty in relation to the Turco-Persian Frontier.
This volume is part one of two. Each part includes a divider which gives the subject and part numbers, the year the subject file was opened, the subject heading, and a list of correspondence references contained in that part by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence.
- Extent and format
- 1 volume (436 folios)
The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.
The subject 1356 (Turco-Persian Frontier) consists of 2 volumes, IOR/L/PS/10/266-267. The volumes are divided into two parts, with each part comprising one volume.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 436; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.
The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the leading and ending flyleaves.
- Written in
- English and French in Latin script View the complete information for this record
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