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File 2182/1913 Pt 10 'N.W. Frontier: Proposed Russian zoological expedition' [‎258r] (107/664)

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The record is made up of 1 item (330 folios). It was created in 28 May 1919-13 Jan 1920. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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In the Name of God the Merciful and Compassionate.
The High British Government on its own part, and Abdul Aziz-bin-Abdur Rahman-bin-Faisal
Al-Saud, Ruler of Najd, El Hassa, Qatif and Jubail, and the towns and ports belonging to them, on
behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, and tribesmen, being desirous of confirming and strengthening
the friendly relations which have for a long time existed between the two parties, and with a view
to consolidating their respective interests—the British Government have named and appointed
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Percy Cox, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., British Resident in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , as their
Plenipotentiary, to conclude a treaty for this purpose with Abdul Aziz-bin-Abdur Rahman-bin-Faisal
The said Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Percy Cox and Abdul Aziz-bin-Abdur Rahman-bin-Faisal
Al-Saud (hereafter known as “ Bin Sand ), have agreed upon and concluded the following articles :—
The British Government do acknowledge and admit that Najd, El Hassa, Qatif and Jubail, and
their dependencies and territories, which will be discussed and determined hereafter, and their ports on the
shores of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. are the countries of Bin Saud and of his fathers before him, and do hereby
recognise the said Bin Saud as the independent Ruler thereof and absolute Chief of their tribes, and
after him his sons and descendants by inheritance; but the selection of the individual shall be in
accordance with the nomination (i.e., by the living Ruler) of his successor ; but with the proviso that he
shall not be a person antagonistic to the British Government in any respect; such as, for example, in
regard to the terms mentioned in this treaty.
In the event of [“ unprovoked ” omitted] aggression by any foreign Power on the territories of
the countries of the said Bin Saud and his descendants without refevence to the British Government
and without giving her an opportunity of communicating with Bin Saud and composing the matter,
the British Government will aid Bin Saud to such extent and in such a manner as the British Govern
ment after consulting Bin Saud may consider most effective for protecting his interests omd countries.
Bin Saud hereby agrees and promises to refrain from entering into any correspondence, agreement,
or treaty with any foreign nation or Power, and, further, to give immediate notice to the political
authorities of the British Government of any attempt on the part of any other Power to interfere with
the above territories.
Bin Saud hereby undertakes that he will absolutely not cede, sell, mortgage, lease, or otherwise
dispose of the above territories or any part of them, or grant concessions within those territories to
any foreign Power or to the subjects of any foreign Power* without the consent of the British
And that he will follow her advice unreservedly provided that it be not damaging to his own interests.
Bin Saud hereby undertakes to keep open within his territories the roads leading to the Holy
Places, and to protect pilgrims on their passage to and from the Holy Places.
* The words “ or the subjects of any foreign Power ” were accidentally omitted in the copies signed
by Sir P. Cox and Bin Saud on the 26th December, 1915. Sir P. Cox drew Bin Saud’s attention to this
omission in a letter dated the 27th December, 1915 (38086/16), and added : “ I have duly written them in
the text of the original document which I am submitting to Government, and Government will consider it
in this form ; so that if the same mistake occurs in the copy with you, I trust you will add the words above

About this item


The title provided at the beginning of this item does not relate in any way to the item's contents. Part 10 is in fact concerned with the dispute between Bin Saud [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd] and King Hussein of Hejaz [Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī al-Hāshimī, King of Hejaz], and British policy towards both.

The item begins with reports that Bin Saud's Akhwan [Ikhwan] forces have advanced to Tarabah (also spelled Turaba in the correspondence) [Turabah], in Hejaz, and includes details of His Majesty's Government's proposed response, which is to inform Bin Saud that if he does not withdraw his forces from Hejaz and Khurma then the rest of his subsidy will be discontinued and he will lose all advantages secured under the treaty of 1915. Included are the following:

  • copies of translations of correspondence between Bin Saud and King Hussein;
  • discussion as to whether the British should send aeroplanes to assist King Hussein;
  • minutes of inter-departmental meetings between representatives of the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , the War Office, the Foreign Office, and the Treasury, on the subject of Bin Saud, held at the Foreign Office and chaired by the Foreign Secretary, Earl Curzon of Kedleston [George Nathaniel Curzon];
  • discussion as to how the British should respond in the event of Bin Saud's Wahabi [Wahhabi] forces taking Mecca and advancing on Jeddah, which it is anticipated may result in the evacuation of a large number of Arabs and British Indians;
  • discussion regarding a proposed meeting between Harry St John Bridger Philby and Bin Saud on the Gulf coast;
  • a report by Captain Herbert Garland [Director of the Arab Bureau, Cairo], entitled 'Note on the Khurma Dispute Between King Hussein and Ibn Saud';
  • a document entitled 'Translation of a Memorandum on the Wahabite [sic] Crisis', addressed to the High Commissioner, Egypt, by Emir Feisal [Fayṣal bin Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī al-Hāshimī], in which Feisal implores the British to take military action against the Wahabi movement;
  • copies of translations of letters addressed to Bin Rashid [Saʿūd bin ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl Rashīd], from Bin Saud and King Hussein respectively, which provide the perspectives of both on recent events at Khurma and Tarabah;
  • a memorandum from the Foreign Office's Political Intelligence Department, entitled 'Memorandum on British Commitments to Bin Saud'.

The item's principal correspondents are the following:

This item also contains translated copies of correspondence between Hussein and the then High Commissioner at Cairo, Sir Arthur Henry McMahon [commonly referred to as the McMahon-Hussein correspondence], dating from July 1915 to January 1916.

Extent and format
1 item (330 folios)
Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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File 2182/1913 Pt 10 'N.W. Frontier: Proposed Russian zoological expedition' [‎258r] (107/664), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/390/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 21 July 2019]

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