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File 2182/1913 Pt 10 'N.W. Frontier: Proposed Russian zoological expedition' [‎290v] (172/664)

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The record is made up of 1 item (330 folios). It was created in 28 May 1919-13 Jan 1920. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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However on returning to Khurma the second time, the cadi threw off all pretence
However, on returning ^ ;oug enthuslasm gamed many adherents.
0I ”t o'?S..wn-w-ed«*
him to take up his duties or to recognise his appointment, and openly
hadjoinedthe Akhwan ibn ^ rul ; ng a t of the latter’s
territory wouki lbn Saud have quietly acquiesced in an important official of his being
and appointed by him, would he have kept
quiet knowing that complaintTto His MajSy'sGovern-
al l o ^such^flagrant a^ertion n ^at e *IDiaHd n is' o^'of
Ibn Sand’s governors on the statement that Khahd was m receipt of some salary from
Ibn Sand before his revolt. This is bv no means unlikely ; indeed, it is probable that
when Khalid joined the Akhwan, Ibn Sand paid him some sort o stipend for propaganda
and pohtkal purposes, a financial investment which has Foved h^h y profile,
10 Soon after Khalid raised the standard of revolt, Mi. Hhilby passed tnrou
Khurma (December 1917), and it is interesting to note how the situation
to him or, the spot.. In the account of his journey from Riadh to iaif fArab bulletin
No. 81, page 74, dated 9th March, 1919), Mr. Philby writes as follows:—
“ Khurma is inhabited mainly by Subai tribesmen, who at the moment of our
arrival were all out in the desert, leaving the village to their slaves and women and to
the Jew merchants, mainly representing Washm, who reside here in connection
the he'cause of the^Wus of the tribesmen with the local Emir—a shereef—appeared
to be that the latter had incurred the displeasure of the Shereef of Mecca by emhi aem|
the Wahabi faith or perhaps had embraced the W ahabi faith hecaiibe ne ha .
tt shereef’s displeasure, alid that the Shereef of Mecca has commissioned he hmir of
Turaba and the Buqum tribe to attack the rebels of Khurma as occasion offered
“The'place was therefore virtually m a state of siege m the sense that no exit wa
allowed to L people in the direction of the Hedjaz, while the warriors of the S U, and
Buqum were trying to out-manoeuvre each otiier in the vast plains be h) y
and the Hadhu hills.”
It will be noted that Mr. Philby writes of the “ rebels of Khunna.” Thus Khalid
and those inhabitants of Khurma who revolted with him were described to ill. flu >
^ b Mr S Biadh for some time. His escort was imposed of
Neidis supplied by Ibn Saud, and it is probable, though 1 have no information o -
STthatVi Saud sent a responsible sheikh or a member oi^is entourage wffh h>m
‘ When passing through Khurma,district Mr. Philby records the fact ^
given to him at the time, that the Emir and some of the inhabitants of Khurma
open ^lebelho^u against canllot c orrectly be described as lieing ‘ l state 01
revolt against King Hussein if it forms an integral part of Ibn Sands dommion, ^ ^
Surely if Khurma belonged to Nejd some one member of the escort 01
sheikh or Arab would have informed Mr. Philby of the fact. . . Kh qq
11 As I have frequently pointed out, the Khurma episode has its origin m Khafict
joining the Akhwan movement and eventually openly revolting.

About this item


The title provided at the beginning of this item does not relate in any way to the item's contents. Part 10 is in fact concerned with the dispute between Bin Saud [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd] and King Hussein of Hejaz [Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī al-Hāshimī, King of Hejaz], and British policy towards both.

The item begins with reports that Bin Saud's Akhwan [Ikhwan] forces have advanced to Tarabah (also spelled Turaba in the correspondence) [Turabah], in Hejaz, and includes details of His Majesty's Government's proposed response, which is to inform Bin Saud that if he does not withdraw his forces from Hejaz and Khurma then the rest of his subsidy will be discontinued and he will lose all advantages secured under the treaty of 1915. Included are the following:

  • copies of translations of correspondence between Bin Saud and King Hussein;
  • discussion as to whether the British should send aeroplanes to assist King Hussein;
  • minutes of inter-departmental meetings between representatives of the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , the War Office, the Foreign Office, and the Treasury, on the subject of Bin Saud, held at the Foreign Office and chaired by the Foreign Secretary, Earl Curzon of Kedleston [George Nathaniel Curzon];
  • discussion as to how the British should respond in the event of Bin Saud's Wahabi [Wahhabi] forces taking Mecca and advancing on Jeddah, which it is anticipated may result in the evacuation of a large number of Arabs and British Indians;
  • discussion regarding a proposed meeting between Harry St John Bridger Philby and Bin Saud on the Gulf coast;
  • a report by Captain Herbert Garland [Director of the Arab Bureau, Cairo], entitled 'Note on the Khurma Dispute Between King Hussein and Ibn Saud';
  • a document entitled 'Translation of a Memorandum on the Wahabite [sic] Crisis', addressed to the High Commissioner, Egypt, by Emir Feisal [Fayṣal bin Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī al-Hāshimī], in which Feisal implores the British to take military action against the Wahabi movement;
  • copies of translations of letters addressed to Bin Rashid [Saʿūd bin ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl Rashīd], from Bin Saud and King Hussein respectively, which provide the perspectives of both on recent events at Khurma and Tarabah;
  • a memorandum from the Foreign Office's Political Intelligence Department, entitled 'Memorandum on British Commitments to Bin Saud'.

The item's principal correspondents are the following:

This item also contains translated copies of correspondence between Hussein and the then High Commissioner at Cairo, Sir Arthur Henry McMahon [commonly referred to as the McMahon-Hussein correspondence], dating from July 1915 to January 1916.

Extent and format
1 item (330 folios)
Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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File 2182/1913 Pt 10 'N.W. Frontier: Proposed Russian zoological expedition' [‎290v] (172/664), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/390/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 25 May 2020]

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