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File 2182/1913 Pt 10 'N.W. Frontier: Proposed Russian zoological expedition' [‎417r] (425/664)

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The record is made up of 1 item (330 folios). It was created in 28 May 1919-13 Jan 1920. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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r*t\w# f-iyi* dnm to in war, th# Ikhwan
mid to tnlc^ no irioonor^, but to cut tho
tbronto of ail who fall Into th«*1r hfiodo.
It haw boon ot aod roponttdly that ibn
Onuc! fcml no connretion with the ifchwan mvomont
In Its onrly otoroo mux thin If ?>robabl^ true, but
it is now suxllcIwt for our irowoHI jUiPpooio to
know; firstly* that tho met orirlnatod clom by
hlsi own toolti&i ^nrt me allowed to flouriob thoro,
ond Its itndlna mlCMrionerle* are Hi® own oubjocto;
oocondly, that it lo moroly n dor :ely J tiool
edition of hnhablcra of which he in the ackuoaieijr^i
leader: and thirdly, that I bn ^od ha# recently out
hlraoelf ?%t the head of the mvment %mt will certainly
not fall to ### it for f Is own win,
For the,#urnore# of thin review, therefore,
it Is uimocogRAry to difforontint# between Xhti m\
ami the ikhwssi or jOwiin the latter find th# onhobit,
dine# the first a>o«r*rtmce of the i.hhwoa,
about 10 year# Hfco, in the vicinity of the enpi*
tnl. hiodh. it h m made rapid prmsr###. It i# orre-
ticnlly certain that the whole of titjd i# Ikhwan, and
its miaelomiries have penetrated to all the corner#
of Arabia,
I-tut it# doctrine® are detected by all
orthodox Modem# ami the rulers of the Arab *3tnte#
mirroumiinp Htjd (eepecinlly KinF Hu#e#in) live in
eenetnnt dremi of it# #pr#«id to their oeoule,
the oreefnt Khuraa crisis has two cause#,
on# relirious, the other ooli tical. The rellriou#
cmise is the King*# determination to stop ikhwan
sectarian oroonfc nds in the Uejss: the politic 4
eeuse 1# the dispute a# to the actual ownerehi# of

About this item


The title provided at the beginning of this item does not relate in any way to the item's contents. Part 10 is in fact concerned with the dispute between Bin Saud [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd] and King Hussein of Hejaz [Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī al-Hāshimī, King of Hejaz], and British policy towards both.

The item begins with reports that Bin Saud's Akhwan [Ikhwan] forces have advanced to Tarabah (also spelled Turaba in the correspondence) [Turabah], in Hejaz, and includes details of His Majesty's Government's proposed response, which is to inform Bin Saud that if he does not withdraw his forces from Hejaz and Khurma then the rest of his subsidy will be discontinued and he will lose all advantages secured under the treaty of 1915. Included are the following:

  • copies of translations of correspondence between Bin Saud and King Hussein;
  • discussion as to whether the British should send aeroplanes to assist King Hussein;
  • minutes of inter-departmental meetings between representatives of the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , the War Office, the Foreign Office, and the Treasury, on the subject of Bin Saud, held at the Foreign Office and chaired by the Foreign Secretary, Earl Curzon of Kedleston [George Nathaniel Curzon];
  • discussion as to how the British should respond in the event of Bin Saud's Wahabi [Wahhabi] forces taking Mecca and advancing on Jeddah, which it is anticipated may result in the evacuation of a large number of Arabs and British Indians;
  • discussion regarding a proposed meeting between Harry St John Bridger Philby and Bin Saud on the Gulf coast;
  • a report by Captain Herbert Garland [Director of the Arab Bureau, Cairo], entitled 'Note on the Khurma Dispute Between King Hussein and Ibn Saud';
  • a document entitled 'Translation of a Memorandum on the Wahabite [sic] Crisis', addressed to the High Commissioner, Egypt, by Emir Feisal [Fayṣal bin Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī al-Hāshimī], in which Feisal implores the British to take military action against the Wahabi movement;
  • copies of translations of letters addressed to Bin Rashid [Saʿūd bin ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl Rashīd], from Bin Saud and King Hussein respectively, which provide the perspectives of both on recent events at Khurma and Tarabah;
  • a memorandum from the Foreign Office's Political Intelligence Department, entitled 'Memorandum on British Commitments to Bin Saud'.

The item's principal correspondents are the following:

This item also contains translated copies of correspondence between Hussein and the then High Commissioner at Cairo, Sir Arthur Henry McMahon [commonly referred to as the McMahon-Hussein correspondence], dating from July 1915 to January 1916.

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1 item (330 folios)
Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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File 2182/1913 Pt 10 'N.W. Frontier: Proposed Russian zoological expedition' [‎417r] (425/664), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/390/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 25 May 2020]

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