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The record is made up of 1 volume (396 folios). It was created in 1910. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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The above list of villages gives a total of 5,054 houses in round numbers.
Assuming the low rate of four persons per house, the result is a popula
tion of 20,216 souls ; and, applying the proportion quoted above of a
surplus of 500 per cent, on the local consumption of food, we have food
apparently produced sufficient for the yearly consumption of over 100,000
souls. There would, therefore, evidently be supplies sufficient for a con
siderable force, after leaving a broad margin for errors and omissions in
the above calculation.
As regards the possible development of the resources of Astarabad under
a different administration to the present, considering the great fertility
of the soil, not only of the uplands to the south, but of the easily irrigated
tract between the Kara Su and the Atrak ; considering also the untouched
resources in timber, the limitless water power available in the mountain
gorges, and also the mildness of the climate—it is easy to see that by a
proper development of these resources, and by colonization by German and
Russian peasants, the products might be multiplied twenty times.
In 1724 Peter the Great invaded the territory south of the Caucasus, and
having taken Darband entered into a treaty with Persia, by which that
power ceded Daghistan, Shirvan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astarabad ; but
the attempt to take over the three latter was never made. Nevertheless the
noteworthy fact remains that the whole of the Caspian provinces of Persia
were ceded to Russia by a treaty, which has never been formally annulled.—
(Holmes ; Kinneir ; Monteith ; Chesnsy ; Eastwick ; Fraser ; Pushchin ; Lovett ;
Astarabad Trade Report, 1990).
ASTARABAD (Town) (No. 5)—Lat. 36° 50' 52" ; Long. 54° 25' 26"; Elev.
377'— (Lemm.)
The chief and only city'of the province of the same name. It is situated
at the foot of the north-west slope of the Elburz and on the river Astar^
which falls into the Astarabad bay in the south-east of the Caspian,
20 miles below. It is enclosed within a crenellated mud wall* about 35 feet
high and from 3 to 4 miles in circumference, flanked by a series of round
towers ; and it had once been strengthened by a ditch, now in most places
filled up. These defences, particularly on the north and east sides of the
town, are in ruins, and would oppose no obstacle to an attack. There are
three gateways—one to the west, where the walls are in the best repair ;
one to the south ; and one to the north-east; they are roofed, and have
small chambers on each side serving as a lodging for the guard.
The present town by no means fills up the space enclosed, which is partly
occupied by gardens and heaps of rubbish, the remains of former habitations..
It is divided into three quarters,■f’ and contains about 1,200 inhabited houses
and about 10,000 inhabitants. The houses are built with mud or sun-dried
bricks of a light, open style of architecture, with projecting fronts and
sloping roofs covered with red tiles or thatch. Many of them have sn all
gardens filled with orange, pomegranate, cherry, and other fruit trees ; and
* Now quite out of dis’opair (1909).
t NaTfcandan, Maidan or Darvazeh Nau and Sabz Moshod (formerly known as
Sukhtoh Chinar).
48 I. B,

About this item


The item is Volume I of the four-volume Gazetteer of Persia (1910 edition).

The volume covers the provinces of Astarabad, Shahrud-Bustam, and Khorasan, or such part of them as lies within the following boundaries: on the north the Russo-Persian boundary; on the east the Perso-Afghan boundary; on the south and south-west, a line drawn from the Afghan boundary west through Gazik to Birjand, and the road from Birjand to Kirman, and from Kirman to Yazd; and on the west the road from Yazd to Damghan and thence to Ashraf.

The gazetteer includes entries on villages, towns, administrative divisions, districts, provinces, tribes, halting-places, religious sects, mountains, hills, streams, rivers, springs, wells, dams, passes, islands and bays. The entries provide details of latitude, longitude, and elevation for some places, and information on history, communications, agriculture, produce, population, health, water supply, topography, military intelligence, coastal features, ethnography, trade, economy, administration and political matters.

Information sources are provided at the end of each gazetteer entry, in the form of an author or source’s surname, italicised and bracketed.

The volume contains an index map (from a later edition of the Gazetteer of Persia ), dated January 1917, on folio 397.

The volume also contains a glossary (folios 393-394); and note on weights and measures (folios 394v-395).

Prepared by the General Staff Headquarters, India.

Printed at the Government Monotype Press, India.

Extent and format
1 volume (396 folios)
Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 398; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Pagination: the file also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'GAZETTEER OF PERSIA. VOLUME I' [‎29r] (62/820), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/2/1, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 10 December 2019]

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