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File 1855/1904 Pt 10 'Koweit:- Relations with Turkey. Sheikh's properties at Fao and Fadaghia' [‎4v] (8/398)

The record is made up of 199 folios. It was created in 12 Jan 1908-18 Sep 1912. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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It would furthermore be necessary for the Ottoman Government to imdertake
formally not to impose river dues on British shipping or cargoes without the assent
of His Majesty’s Government. . . , ,, c , ,, ,
There remains the question of the terminal port: having regard to the fact that
important commercial interests are already established at Bussorah, His Majesty s_
Government cannot but feel that substantial advantages would accrue from the, V
establishment of the terminus at that point; and they consider that the port should
be constructed and controlled by the proposed new company in the interests of the
unrestricted commerce of all nations. But if such an arrangement is adopted, they
must stipulate that, in the event of the railway ever being prolonged to the 1 ersian
Gulf it must be brought to Koweit under conditions to be settled b;y agreement
between Great Britain and Turkey alone, and a clause to this effect must be embodied
in a convention dealing with these matters.
(ii.) The respective Interests of Great Britain and Turkey in the Region of the
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .
His Majesty’s Government are willing to meet the wish expressed in the concluding
paragraphs of the Turkish memorandum that a precise definition may be reached as
to the respective position of the two countries, commercially and politically, in the
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; and they see no reason why a lasting settlement of the questions
involved should not be reached. His Majesty’s Government are in no sense opposed
to the legitimate claims of the Turkish Government. The most southerly point to
which they have ever recognised such claims on the littoral of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. is
Ojeir, in the district of El Katif. South of this point there is no trace of Turkish
power ever having been paramount; in 1870 the Ottoman Minister foi Foieign
Affairs conveyed to Her Majesty’s Ambassador formal assurances that the Sublime
Porte did not entertain any intention of obtaining supremacy over Bahrein, Muscat,
or the independent tribes on the coast of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; and it is only since that
date that certain attempts have been made by the Ottoman Government to establish
mudirates and other emblems of Turkish authority at points to the south of Ojeir.
The position of His Majesty’s Government in regard to these tribes has been
entirely different. With Bahrein they have had direct relations since 1805 , these
relations have found concrete expression in a series of treaties dating from 1820, and
having as their objects the suppression of piracy and the slave trade ; the regularity
of the succession to the throne ; the protection of the island against foreign aggression ;
and the safety of the pearl industry, of which Bahrein is the centre. In Muscat
and the territories of the Trucial Chiefs His Majesty’s Government have, in virtue
of various treaties and agreements, conferred similar benefits for many years ; and
their policy in each case has been inspired by the importance of upholding the
maritime peace, of securing open markets to the commerce of ^ all countries, and
of protecting the long-established interests of British-Indian subjects.
His Majesty’s Government cannot acquiesce in any arrangement which might
restrict or undermine the authority which they have exercised uninterruptedly
with such beneficent results; they conceive that any extension of Turkish jurisdiction
along the littoral of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , to the south of Ojeir would be prejudicial to
those results and unsupported by any legitimate claims of Turkish sovereignty ; and
they have accordingly resisted any attempts which have been made to encroach upon
these regions. They are therefore of opinion that any lasting settlement between
the two Powers must provide for the definite renunciation by the Ottoman Govern
ment of Bahrein and adjacent islands and of the whole of the Peninsula of El Katr
(including El Bidaa), where the Sheikh of Bahrein has important rights; and they
consider that such a settlement would finally remove a perennial source of local
friction.
The Ottoman Government express a wish to regularise the relations of Koweit
towards the Ottoman Empire, and His Majesty’s Government will gladly contribute
to such a solution, on the understanding that their rights and claims are not to be
regarded as prejudiced by any proposals which may now be put forward, should such
proposals prove abortive.
As the Ottoman Government are aware, His Majesty’s Government have never
admitted that Koweit is under Turkish protection, and, inasmuch as some divergence
of opinion was manifested between the two Governments as to the position there, a
modus vivendi was reached in September 1901 by His Majesty’s Government consent
ing to give an assurance that, provided the Turkish Government abstained from

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The papers concern relations between Shaikh Mubarak [Mubārak bin Jābir Āl Ṣabāḥ], Ruler of Koweit [Kuwait] and the Government of Turkey [the Ottoman Empire]; particularly in regard to the purchase by the Shaikh of date gardens at Fao [Al Fāw] on the Shatt-al-Arab, and property at Fadaghia, near Fao, both of which were in Turkish territory. In both cases, the Turkish authorities insisted that the Shaikh should first register himself as an Ottoman subject before they would allow the legal formalities of ownership to be completed.

The principal correspondents are the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Zachariah Cox); the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait (Major Stuart George Knox; from 1909 Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear); the British Consul at Basrah (also referred to as Bussorah) [Basra] (Francis Edward Crow); the British Ambassador at Constantinople (Sir Gerald Augustus Lowther); Shaikh Mubarak; and senior officials of the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , the Government of India, and the Foreign Office.

The papers cover: papers concerning the Fao property, including the Shaikh's appeals for a committee of inquiry and arbitration over the matter, January 1908 - July 1909 (folios 115-199); papers concerning the Fadaghia property, February 1909 - December 1910 (folios 6-114); Foreign Office paper containing a memorandum communicated to the Turkish Ambassador concerning the Bagdad railway question and other matters, July 1911 (folios 4-5); and correspondence concerning a false report in a Turkish newspaper that an allowance had been granted by the Turkish Government to Shaikh Mubarak, May-July 1912 (folios 2-3).

The French language content of the papers is confined to three folios of newspaper extracts (folios 133-135).

The date range gives the covering dates of all the documents contained in the papers; the covering dates of the Secret Department minute papers that enclose them, as given on folio 1, are 1908-1912.

Extent and format
199 folios
Written in
English and French in Latin script
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File 1855/1904 Pt 10 'Koweit:- Relations with Turkey. Sheikh's properties at Fao and Fadaghia' [‎4v] (8/398), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/51/2, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100037401201.0x000012> [accessed 16 November 2019]

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