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'Report on Kurdistan' [‎42r] (88/220)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (106 folios). It was created in 1911. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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There are many opinions as to the identity of Ardalan,* from whom are de
scended the Yalis of Kurdistan. Some say he was son of Ardishir Babakan ; accord
ing to others he was the son of Khusrau, the miller who slew Yezdijird, King of
Persia, and whose children prospered in a wonderful manner. Others again say that
Ardalan’s name was Khusrau, that he was a miller; whilst, according to Abu-
Muslim Maruzi, he was named by Abul ’Abbas, Ahmad ’Abbasi, Governor of
Kurdistan, whence his name of Ardalan, his sons and descendants being known as
Bani-Ardalan or the sons of Ardalan.
Be this as it may, Ardalan and his family were for years chiefs of some importance
ccc a nr Mosul and Diarbekir ; and Ardalan, with a large
mfiQ—1*910 a tm ’ number of his relatives and followers, removed to
e ' * ’ Shar-i-Zor, where in 564 A. H. he ruled over an
extensive district.
He built the strong citadel of Kaleh Zolm, and little by little extended his
rule to the whole of Kurdistan. He obtained, later, possession of Palingan, the
seat of the chiefs of the Kalhor tribe, and, having removed to that spot, built
there a stronghold, the ruins of which are still to be seen.
For 42 years he governed Kurdistan as an independent and illustrious ruler.
Towards the end of his life, by order of Jengizian (Jengiz Khan)t he added to
his rule Kui, Harir, Shahr-i-Bazar, Ruvanduz and Emadieh. He died in 606
A.H. and was succeeded by his son Kalul.
Kalul,J an intrepid ruler, added to his father’s dominions Sakiz, Siah
Kuh, Kalamro-’Ali-Sheker (the present Isfandabad)
t Kalul, 600—629 A.H. an d Zarin Kamar (Garrus).
(1210-1232 A.D.).
In 612 Kalul, who is sometimes mentioned as the son of Mulla Fazl Ardalan],
ruled over a territory limited east by Hamadan, west by Arbil which is 12 farsaJchs
from Mosul, north by Zinjan and south by Kirmanshah, Sunghur and Sulai-
manieh then known as Shahr-i-Bazar included on its western frontier Kui, Ema
dieh, Ruvanduz and Shahr-i-Zor, and on its northern frontier Zarin Kamar.
The Mogul and Tartar armies which ravaged Persia at this time were unsuccessful
in Kurdistan, which they frequently invaded, but could neither subdue the coun
try nor seize Kalul and the other Kurdish chiefs.
Kalul removed his capital from Kaleh Zolm to Kaleh Palingan which is
12 farsakhs from the present town of Senna, strengthened the castle, and
built a residence for himself, and bazars and mosques for the inhabitants.
He also built a castle and founded a settlement at Merivan.
*Lord Curzon says : “ It is only within
the present reign that ihis province has been
tin roughly subdued to ihe central authority.
For e< nturies it was ruled by almost inde
pendent Guran chieftains of the house of
Bani Ard lan.” But the Bani Ard. Ian
deny that they are descended from the
Gurans ; they sometimes claim descent
from the celebrated Saleh-ud-Din or Sala-
din, the famous enemy of the Crusaders,
born at Tekrit in 1137 A.D. The Sharaf
Namch, or history of the Kurds dating
from the sixteenth century, tells us that
towards the close of the Jcnghiziars
a m m named Baba Ardalan a descendant
of the Governors of Diarbekir, and related
to the famous Ahmad ibn Merivan, after re
maining for some time among the Gurans,
gained possession of the country of
Shahr-i-zor,” ai d the Ardalan family his
tory, with th ■ gradual extension of their
power over Persian Kurdistan, is then
traced down to the Seffavian period. (I was
unable to lay hands on this book. — H.L.R.)
-(•Rulers of Persia. Mogul dynasty, 1193-
1335. Jengiz Khan died in 1226.

About this item


Confidential report compiled by Hyacinth Louis Rabino. The report was printed in Simla at the Government Monotype Press, 1911.

The report is divided into three parts (I-III), as follows:

Part I: Geographical and Commercial Notes (folios 6-39) with sections on the province of Kurdistan (including information on cultivation, population, revenue, roads, imports/exports, and the capital, Senna), its tribes (including statistics on population, land, and residences), rivers, and mountains, and appendices comprised of government lists of villages.

Part II: History (folios 40-54) with a chart showing the Valis and Provincial Governors of Kurdistan for the years 1169-1905 (folio 41).

Part III: Gazetteer of Kurdistan (folios 55-104) arranged alphabetically.

At the back of the volume is a glossary (folios 105-06) including notes on the weights used in Kurdistan.

Extent and format
1 volume (106 folios)

There is a contents page at the front of the volume (f 5) which refers to the volume's original pagination.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence for this description commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 108; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'Report on Kurdistan' [‎42r] (88/220), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/21, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 27 February 2020]

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