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Coll 6/64 'South-Eastern Boundaries in [Arabia] – Anglo-Turkish Convention of 1913. Attitude of U.S.A.' [‎79r] (157/183)

The record is made up of 1 file (90 folios). It was created in 29 Jul 1913-27 Jul 1934. It was written in English, French and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

Transcription

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15
Whensoever it shall become known and certain that from any
quarter whatsoever slaves have been brought to my territories, or
to any places subject to my authority, I, of my own free will and
accord, will seize the said slaves and deliver them over to the
British vessels of war. Further, should it be ascertained that
slaves have been carried in any of my vessels or in the vessels of
people, my subjects, or dependents, and it should happen that the
Government cruisers did not fall in with the said vessels, then, no
matter where the slaves have been landed, do I hereby bind
myself to place an embargo upon the delinquent boat and her
nakhoda until such time as instructions have been received from
the Resident at Bushire regarding them.
Dated this 15th day of Ramzan, A.H. 1272 (or the 10th day of
May. 1856 a.d.).
(L.S.) Sheikh MAHOMED-BIN-K i 1ALEEFA.
A similar engagement was entered into by the maritime chiefs
of Ras-ool-Kheirmar, Ummool Keirweyn, Debay, Ejman, and
Aboo Dhebbee.
( 3 .)
Terms of the Friendly Convention entered into between Sheikh
Mahomed-bin-Khuleefa, Independent Ruler of Bahrein, on
the part of Himself and Successors, and Captain Felix Jones,
Her Majesty’s Indian Navy, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. of Her Bri
tannic Majesty in the Gulf of Persia, on the part of the
British Government, 1861.
Preliminary .—Considering the tribe disorders which arise and
are perpetrated from maritime aggressions in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , I.
Sheikh Mahomed-bin-Khuleefa, independent Ruler of Bahrein, on
my own part and on that of my heirs and successors, in the
presence of the chiefs and elders who are witnesses to this docu
ment, do subscribe and agree to a perpetual Treaty of Peace and
f riendship with the British Government, having for its object the
advancement of trade and the security of all classes of people
navigating or residing upon the coasts of the sea:—
Article 1.
I recognise as valid and in force all former treaties and con
ventions agreed to between the chiefs of Bahrein and the British
Government, either direct or through the mediation of its repre
sentatives in this Gulf.
Article 2.
I agree to abstain from all maritime aggressions of every
description, from the prosecution of war, piracy, and slavery by
sea, so long as I receive the support of the British Government
[81] D

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Content

This file relates to boundaries in eastern Arabia (specifically Saudi Arabia and Qatar). It concerns British policy regarding what is referred to as the 'blue line' (the frontier which marked the Ottoman Government's renunciation of its claims to Bahrain and Qatar, as laid down in the non-ratified Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913 and redefined and adopted in the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of the following year).

Much of the correspondence relates to a request for a copy of the 1913 Anglo-Ottoman Convention, which was submitted by the United States Embassy in Angora [Ankara] to its British counterpart (reportedly on behalf of the United States' State Department), as well as to the wider significance of this request in relation to the United States' oil interests in the region.

The correspondence also discusses Foreign Office concerns that aerial survey work carried out by the California Arabian Standard Oil Company (Casoc) in relation to its Hasa oil concession might extend beyond the blue line (subsequent correspondence relays reports of Casoc's aeroplane having crossed the blue line).

Although the date range of the file is 1913-1934 most of the material dates from 1934. In addition to correspondence from 1934, the file includes two letters between officials of the Foreign Office and the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. dating from 1924, and printed copies of the Anglo-Ottoman Conventions of 1913 and 1914 (in English and French), both of which contain enclosed maps (with text in English and Arabic). Also included with the Conventions are printed copies of agreements and treaties between Britain and various Gulf rulers, covering 1820-1904, and printed copies of Anglo-Ottoman protocols, covering 1903-1905.

Notable correspondents include the following: the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Trenchard Craven William Fowle); the British Ambassador in Angora (Percy Loraine); Hugh Millard, United States Embassy, London; officials of the Foreign Office and the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. .

The file includes a divider which gives a list of correspondence references contained in the file by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence (folio 2).

Extent and format
1 file (90 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the file.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the last folio with 91; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Written in
English, French and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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Coll 6/64 'South-Eastern Boundaries in [Arabia] – Anglo-Turkish Convention of 1913. Attitude of U.S.A.' [‎79r] (157/183), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/2131, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100039921442.0x0000a0> [accessed 15 December 2019]

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