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Coll 6/64 'South-Eastern Boundaries in [Arabia] – Anglo-Turkish Convention of 1913. Attitude of U.S.A.' [‎88r] (175/183)

The record is made up of 1 file (90 folios). It was created in 29 Jul 1913-27 Jul 1934. It was written in English, French and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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33
inflicted, provided that its occurrence can be satisfactorily
proved.
Article 4.
That on the termination of the month of May 1853 by God’s
blessing we will endeavour to arrange either an extension of this
truce or a firm and lasting peace; but in the event of our being
unable to come to a satisfactory adjustment regaining our
respective claims, we hereby bind ourselves to give notice, on or
about the above date, to the British Resident of our intention to
renew hostilities after the expiration of the term now fixed
upon for the truce, viz., the end of this month of May 1853.
(Signed as in the preamble.)
(19.)
Treaty of Peace in Perpetuity agreed upon by the Chiefs of the
Arabian Coasts in behalf of Themselves, their Heirs, and
Successors, under the Mediation of the Resident in the
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , 1853.
\Ve, whose seals are hereunto aflSxed, Sheikh Sultan-bin-Suggur,
Chief of Ras-ool-Kheimah ; Sheikh Saeed-bin-Tahnoou, Chief of
Aboo Dhebbee; Sheikh Saeed-bin-Butye, Chief of Debay; Sheikh
Hamid-bin-Rashed, Chief of Ejman; Sheikh Abdoola-bin-Rashed,
Chief of Umm-ool-Keiweyn, having experienced for a series of
years the benefits and advantages resulting from a maritime truce
contracted amongst ourselves under the mediation of the Resident
in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and renewed from time to time up to the
present period, and being fully impressed therefore with a sense of
the evil consequences formerly arising from the prosecution of our
. feuds at sea, whereby our subjects and dependents were prevented
from carrying on the pearl fishery in security and were exposed to
interruption and molestation when passing on their lawful
occasions, accordingly we, as aforesaid, have determined for our
selves, our heirs and successors, to conclude together a lasting and
inviolable peace from this time forth in perpetuity, and do
hereby agree to bind ourselves down to observe the following
conditions:—
Article 1.
1 hat from this date, viz., the 25th Rujjub, 12fi ( J (4th May,
1853), and hereafter, there shall be a complete cessation of
hostilities at sea between our respective subjects and dependents,
and a perfect maritime truce shall endure between ourselves and
between our successors respectively for evermore.
Article 2.
1 hat in the event (which God forbid) of any of our subjects
or dependents committing an act of aggression at sea upon the
|81] ' l f 2

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Content

This file relates to boundaries in eastern Arabia (specifically Saudi Arabia and Qatar). It concerns British policy regarding what is referred to as the 'blue line' (the frontier which marked the Ottoman Government's renunciation of its claims to Bahrain and Qatar, as laid down in the non-ratified Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913 and redefined and adopted in the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of the following year).

Much of the correspondence relates to a request for a copy of the 1913 Anglo-Ottoman Convention, which was submitted by the United States Embassy in Angora [Ankara] to its British counterpart (reportedly on behalf of the United States' State Department), as well as to the wider significance of this request in relation to the United States' oil interests in the region.

The correspondence also discusses Foreign Office concerns that aerial survey work carried out by the California Arabian Standard Oil Company (Casoc) in relation to its Hasa oil concession might extend beyond the blue line (subsequent correspondence relays reports of Casoc's aeroplane having crossed the blue line).

Although the date range of the file is 1913-1934 most of the material dates from 1934. In addition to correspondence from 1934, the file includes two letters between officials of the Foreign Office and the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. dating from 1924, and printed copies of the Anglo-Ottoman Conventions of 1913 and 1914 (in English and French), both of which contain enclosed maps (with text in English and Arabic). Also included with the Conventions are printed copies of agreements and treaties between Britain and various Gulf rulers, covering 1820-1904, and printed copies of Anglo-Ottoman protocols, covering 1903-1905.

Notable correspondents include the following: the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Trenchard Craven William Fowle); the British Ambassador in Angora (Percy Loraine); Hugh Millard, United States Embassy, London; officials of the Foreign Office and the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. .

The file includes a divider which gives a list of correspondence references contained in the file by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence (folio 2).

Extent and format
1 file (90 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the file.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the last folio with 91; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Written in
English, French and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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Coll 6/64 'South-Eastern Boundaries in [Arabia] – Anglo-Turkish Convention of 1913. Attitude of U.S.A.' [‎88r] (175/183), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/2131, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100039921442.0x0000b2> [accessed 12 December 2019]

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