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File 4880/1913 Pt 2 'Turco-Persian Frontier Commission: protocol of 1913' [‎304v] (476/499)

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The record is made up of 1 item (248 folios). It was created in 1913. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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Proposition 2.
The line taken is fixed with the object of leaving the powerful and numerous
Senjabi tribe undisturbed and undivided in their present and hereditary winter
pasture. It involves the continuation of the frontier south from Kani Biz, on the
Alvand (the present frontier), along its present line, as the Senjabi pastures are
limited by that line, which is somewhere on the west slopes of Bagcha and Katar
This proposition leaves Kasr-i-Shirin to the Persians.
It would be possible, were it so desired, to take the frontier-line along the green
line (claimed by the Persians), thereby restoring to Turkey the west slopes of Agha
Dagh, at present occupied by Persia. This would not interfere with the Senjabi to
any serious extent.
With this line of frontier a portion of North Juanrud, including Shemiran, would
advisedly be ceded as compensation for the environs of Kasr-i-Shirin. Such portion
should be bounded south by a line running from the south end of Bamu Mountain to
Deshti Murd, meeting the Khani Shur Mountain and running north to the Sirwan
along the ridge.
By this proposition, in acquiring the Shemiran and Juanrud district and
relinquishing the Senjabi districts, the Turks would obtain possession of—
1. Fertile and populated lands which have never rendered any benefit to Persia.
2. Sunni population (anti-Persian).
Whereas against the acquisition of Senjabi lands there are the objections for
Turkey of—
1. A hostile Persophile tribe (Shiah).
2. Settlement of the tribe’s subjectivity.
3. Disarmament of the tribes every autumn (a practical impossibility without
open warfare).
4. Acquisition of lands absolutely desert in summer and autumn, with no popula
tion whatever and no possibility of settlement.
Proposition 3.
. ^ ith the object of leaving the Senjabi winter lands in Turkish territory. For
this purpose the mediating commissioners’ line must be taken to its junction with the
Ahmnd, and. thence the frontier-line between the Kalhur and Senjabi to a point north
i ^! nc a h hi the existing limit line. This proposition is open to objection, mainly
that the question of subjectivity of the Senjabi would have to be settled.
If they become Turkish subjects they will raid and commit brigandage in Persia
m their summer lands near Kermanshah. If they are Persian subjects they will cause
endless tiouble by their intrigues with other Shiah tribes just over the border during
winter, and in any case the Turks will find it impossible to disarm them. This tribe
cannot find any other winter grazing land than that thej^ at present occupy, and there
is no solution in the proposal that they betake themselves elsewhere.
The Gilan plain is part of the Kalhur territory, together with its lands of Wizhnan
to south-west, and the incorporation of this in Turkish territory is open to exactly the
tS 116 i ) :d ec ^ ons as ^ ie acquisition of Senjabi winter lands (which it also involves).
I he Gilan frontier exactly doubles the difficulties considered under the Senjabi
question, as the Kalhur are also a Shiah Persophile tribe, with their summer lands in
I ersia and without any other place to occupy in winter save those in which thev are at
Generally speaking, it appears that any cession of territory to Turkey is most
preferably to be given from the lands containing Sunni (anti-Persian populations,
which are only to be found north of the Zohab plain and Kuretu rivers), and that the
anti-lurk (Shiah peoples to the south of these limits) are far better left in Persian
t r rri D 0r ’F The adoption of proposition 2 meets entirely these considerations, saving
^ u Tv r i S u an \ leaving them Kasr-i-Shirin town and their Shiah tribes (Senjabi
and Kalhur), which have their summer quarters near Kermanshah, and giving to the
lurks a partially sedentary population (Sunni) and good land. The statements
regarding the Guran pasturages in my original note on this question have to be
modified, as at that time I was not aware of the circumstances of the occupation of the

About this item


Correspondence, reports and maps relating to the 1913 Turco-Persian Frontier Commission, and the production of the Protocole relative à la Délimitation turco-persane, signé à Constantinople le 4 (17) Novembre, 1913 .

The primary correspondents are: HM Consul-General at Teheran (Sir Walter Beaupre Townley); HM Consul-General at Constantinople; HM Vice-Consul at Kashr-i Shirin (E B Soane); the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Political Department; the Turkish Minister for Foreign Affairs (Said Halim); the Russian Consul-General in Baghdad (M Orlof); the Russian Ambassador to the UK (Count Von Benckendorff); HM Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey); and Albert Charles Wratislaw, head of the British section of the Commission.

The file opens with correspondence regarding reported Turkish military build-up in Kasr-i Shirin [Qaṣr-e Shīrīn], disturbances on the Baghdad-Kermaāshāh route, local raids by Persian and Turkish tribesmen, possible concessions to Turkey in the Zohab [Zohāb] district, and the difficulty of reaching an agreement which would be acceptable to Sunni and Shia tribes in the Zohab region. A map of the Zohab region is included at folio 305.

The bulk of the file concerns arrangements for the Frontier Commission, discussing: the push for a settlement; the composition of the British, Russian, Turkish and Persian commissions; the need to use surveying and triangulation to improve on pre-existing, inaccurate maps; the wording of the internal rules [ Règlement Intérieur ] to govern the Commission; arrangements over work to be conducted by the northern and southern sections of the Commission; and arrangements to preserve the rights of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in regions to be transferred to Turkey.

Key items:

Folios 224-29 Declaration regarding the frontier, signed by Sir Edward Grey and I Hakky Pasha, with four accompanying maps:

  • Map No 1, Sketch Map showing Turco-Persian Frontier West and South of Hawizeh [Howeyzeh];
  • Map No 2, Sketch Map of Muhammareh [Khorramshar] to indicate the Turco-Persian Boundary;
  • Map No 3, Sheet No I, Map of Shatt-Al-'Arab & Bahmanshir [Rūdkhāneh-ye Bahmanshīr] including Muhammareh [Khorramshar] & 'Abbádán I [Ābādān];
  • Map No 4, Sheet No II, Map of Shatt-Al-'Arab & Bahmanshir, including Muhammareh & 'Abbádán I.

Folios 68-87 Copy of the Protocole relative à la Délimitation turco-persane, signé à Constantinople le 4 (17) Novembre, 1913, plus: additional copies of the four maps detailed above; Annex (A), Règlement intérieur de la Commission de Délimitation de la Frontière turco-persane ; Annex (B) Statement by the Ottoman Government pledging to maintain, within the territories granted by Persia to Turkey, the rights and obligations granted to the Anglo-Persian Oil Company Ltd by the Persian Imperial Government under the Convention of 28 May, 1901; also included are notes on the meetings of the frontier delegates at Constantinople, 4-9 November, written by the British Commissioner, Albert Charles Wratislaw.

Folio 67 is a collection header sheet, giving the subject heading and a list of correspondence references found within the part, listed by year.

Extent and format
1 item (248 folios)

The papers are arranged in rough chronological order from the rear to the front of the section

Written in
English and French in Latin script
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File 4880/1913 Pt 2 'Turco-Persian Frontier Commission: protocol of 1913' [‎304v] (476/499), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/430/2, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 18 October 2019]

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