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Coll 6/67(3) 'Boundaries of South Eastern Arabia and Qatar.' [‎108r] (222/830)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (411 folios). It was created in 7 Feb 1935-20 Dec 1935. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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lyerni 11611
the independent rulers of the Arab States in South-Eastern Arp hi n v n in
emphasise the importance which His Maip^v’« ' f b ^ ^ ou should
historic position in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. pnrl ih' • comment attach to their
to any solution which might 0 , th t elr a g reein g
lEns 1 ! 6 lntereStS ° f the Arab State S \vYh J w hom they
AzizYhatyouarYifpCesS Yf Yew Maiestv™ ^ “
Before describing these pronosals vou L 7 . Jest 7 s . Government -
in the Saudi memorandum of the 3rd April last, ^evefop^^fo^this^?^
as se? ouT iY thf“Y Yf thYmeetlngl 0 ” Wlth FUad Bey HamZa Iast ~ er
■ ?’ , B . e S m ning at the northern end of the proposed Saudi line vou should
point out the importance which His Majesty’s Govehment attach to eYteblisCne
conXaYiYYs aCC T°he a o fl h Wlth S e0 »f a ^ 1Ca1 ’ aS Wel1 as P olltIcal and 3
YeoYrafhYTunB h and if ; P6 T SUla f0n f? a 1 , clearl y defined and separate
Ivuf; . f and it is only reasonable that the frontier between the
Sheikhdom and its neighbours should follow the natural division betTeeY thf
peninsula and the mainland. His Majesty’s Government have already expressed
readiness to depart from their strict legal position by recognising Kmg P Abdul
Aziz s sovereignty as extending over the western shore of the gulf kfown as
, e pJohat-as-Salwa and over the Ikhwan settlements at the head of the Gulf-
but they could never consent to attribute to Saudi Arabia features, such for
of the P Gatf r PemA 6 f aksh ’ 7 hlch form ™ integral part of the physical structure
fart ff A Ylf f-Yi a f lf ^’ ld hav ? alwa y s : 111 fact, been an equally integral
pait of the Sheikhdom. An additional factor in regard to the frontier of Qalir
is the grant by the Sheikh to the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, with thC fidl
fl’f’u-ffi ° f t fr, n^y s Government, of an oil concession over the
m mdom ot Qatar This concession, which was granted on the 11th May
ast while not extending beyond the limits of the State of Qatar as claimed by
the Sheikh of Qatar and recognised as his territory by His Majesty’s Government,
does actually extend to the south of the line claimed by King Abdul Aziz,
(ry. paragraph 5 above); but the position in this respect will be already known to
His Majesty through the communication which I instructed Mr. Calvert to make
by my telegram Ho. 112 of the 20th September. Should you decide to advert to
this development, you should take the opportunity to recall the fact that
His Majesty s Government have formally assured the Sheikh of Qatar of their
protection against any interference with his territorial rights.
10. Turning to the problem of the Khor-al-Odeid (to which Fuad Bey Hamza
attached special importance), you will explain to King Abdul Aziz that, as
uad Bey was informed in London, His Majesty’s Government have long
iecognised officially the validity of the Sheikh of Abu Dhabi’s claim to the whole
oi this inlet, and have regarded his territory as extending round both the Khor-al-
Dmrv\ aihm and the Khor-ai-Odeid up to a line, running westwards from the
northern side of tne mouth of the Khor-al-Odeid, which forms the boundary
between the territory of Abu Dhabi and that of Qatar. His Majesty’s Govern
ment naturally cannot violate or disregard their obligations to these Arab rulers
with whom, as the King has recognised by article 6 of the Treaty of Jedda, they
have long-standing and special treaty relations. Should you consider it wise or
desirable to do so, you are authorised to develop frankly to the King a further
argument which was used with Fuad Bey Hamza in London; namely, that His
Majesty s Government have had for many years a particularly strong interest in
the chain of Arab States on the coast between Qatar and Muscat; that the
maintenance of this position is an important principle of British policy in the
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; and that it would be at complete variance with this policy for them
to agree that a powerful State such as Saudi Arabia should acquire a new r
outlet to the sea on this section of the coast, to which neither political nor
geographical considerations entitle it.
11. Pursuing your reply to the claims put forward in the Saudi memorandum
of the 3rd April, you should explain that a thorough reinvestigation of the
[12260] b 2

About this item

Content

This volume primarily concerns British policy regarding the south-eastern boundaries of Saudi Arabia, specifically those bordering Qatar, the Trucial Shaikhdoms, Muscat, the Hadramaut and the Aden Protectorate.

It includes interdepartmental discussion regarding the approach that the British Government should take in reaching a settlement with King Ibn Saud [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd] over the demarcation of the boundaries.

References are made to various existing and proposed lines, including the 'blue line' and the 'violet line' – boundary lines that formed part of the Anglo-Ottoman Conventions, concluded in 1913 and 1914 respectively, a 'green line' and a 'brown line', which represent more recent territorial concessions proposed by the British to Ibn Saud, and a 'red line', which is referred to as the Saudi Government's claim for its country's south-eastern boundary.

The volume features the following principal correspondents: the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Trenchard Craven William Fowle); the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Bahrain (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Gordon Loch); His Majesty's Minister at Jedda (Sir Andrew Ryan); the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Samuel Hoare); the Acting Chief Commissioner, Aden (Lieutenant-Colonel Morice Challoner Lake); officials of the Colonial Office, the Foreign Office, the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , the Government of India's Foreign and Political Department.

The correspondence includes discussion of the following:

  • The extent of territory that the British should be prepared to include in any concession made to Ibn Saud.
  • The abandonment of the idea of a proposed 'desert zone'.
  • The future of the Treaty of Jedda of 1927.
  • Meetings held at the Foreign Office with Fuad Bey Hamza, Deputy Saudi Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Hafiz Wahba, Saudi Arabian Minister in London, during June and July 1935.
  • The eastern boundary of the Aden Protectorate.
  • The possibility of the British Government employing Bertram Thomas to carry out enquiries and investigations regarding the question of Saudi Arabia's south-eastern frontiers.
  • Wells and territories of the Al Murra [Āl Murrah] tribe.
  • Preparations for Sir Andrew Ryan's forthcoming visit to Riyadh for negotiations with Ibn Saud.
  • Abu Dhabi's claim to Khor-al-Odeid [Khawr al ‘Udayd].
  • Details of a British aerial reconnaissance of the Qatar Peninsula, which took place on 11 October 1935.

In addition to correspondence the volume includes the following: copies of the minutes of meetings of the Committee of Imperial Defence's Standing Ministerial and Official Sub-Committee for Questions Concerning the Middle East, dated 15 April 1935 and 24 September 1935 respectively; photographs of the Qatar Peninsula, taken during the aforementioned aerial reconnaissance; a map showing the route of the aerial reconnaissance.

The volume includes a divider which gives a list of correspondence references contained in the volume by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence (folio 4).

Extent and format
1 volume (411 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 411; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers.

Written in
English in Latin script
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Coll 6/67(3) 'Boundaries of South Eastern Arabia and Qatar.' [‎108r] (222/830), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/2136, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100046787905.0x000017> [accessed 22 November 2019]

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