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The record is made up of 1 volume (223 folios). It was created in 1923. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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deprived her of territory ; and their foreign policy had pleased
no European Power. Curiously enough, while Germany
incurred a considerable loss of prestige owing to the failure of
the German trained and equipped Turkish armies and to her
own failure to give more material assistance to Turkey against
Italy and the Balkans, she actually increased her activities
politically and commercially during this period. She realised
that the methods of the Committee of Union and Progress
were the same as those of Abdul Hamid, and she utilised this
knowledge to gain ground and to become a power behind the
Government as the friend and supporter of the Committee.
As the Germans lost ground with the Turks, many of the latter
turned their thoughts to obtaining assistance from Great
Britain and, though the conduct of the Turkish Government
towards Great Britain had not been marked by any great
friendliness, our unsympathetic attitude after the Balkan
reverses was much felt. The situation disclosed the fact,
however, that the country as a whole had still strong sympathies
towards us and we were able in consequence to carry through
the successful negotiations of 1912-1914 which have been
alluded to in the last chapter.
Enver Pasha became Minister of War in December 1913 and
from the outbreak of war was our main opponent in the Turkish
Government. Though his influence as one of the secret group
which governed Turkey after the revolution of 1908 was great,
he was content to remain in the background till 1913. Quiet
and reserved, he was a man of capacity and great energy,
daring to an unusual degree, but unscrupulous and vain. About
35 years of age in 1913, small and attractive in appearance and
married to a Princess of the Imperial Family he was stated
to have had the ambition of becoming a second Napoleon,
whom he considers that he resembles and for whom he has a
great admiration. Though without private means, he lived in
a palace on a lavish scale and was always attended in public by
four or five General officers and Aides-de-Camp. His sympa
thies, education and methods were German and his residence in
Berlin as military attache had a strong influence on his character
and career. There are good reasons to believe that, before
the war, he was subventioned by the German Government.
He was the first Minister for War in Turkey who had the courage
to make a clean sweep of inefficients in the Ministry and he
showed considerable activity in introducing administrative
reforms. In 1913-1914 he was a man to be counted upon and
likely to make his mark.

About this item


The volume is the first volume of an official government publication compiled at the request of the Government of India, and under the direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence, by Brigadier-General Frederick James Moberly. The volume was printed and published at His Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

The contents provide a narrative of the operations of 1914-1918 in Mesopotamia, based mainly on official documents.

The volume is divided into two parts. The first part, entitled, 'Part I. Before the Outbreak of Hostilities', consists of the following five chapters:

  • General Description of the Country
  • The Turks in Mesopotamia
  • British Pre-War Policy
  • The Army in India and Pre-War Military Policy
  • Inception of the Operations

The second part, entitled, 'Part II. The Campaign in Lower Mesopotamia', consists of the following seven chapters:

  • The Landing in Mesopotamia of Force "D" and the Operations Leading to the Occupation of Basra
  • The Occupation of Basra and the Capture of Qurna
  • Commencement of the Turkish Counter-Offensive
  • Development and Defeat of the Turkish Counter-Offensive
  • Operations in Arabistan and the Capture of Amara
  • Operations on the Euphrates and the Occupation of Nasiriya
  • The battle of Kut and Occupation of Aziziya

The volume also includes nine maps, entitled:

  • The Middle East
  • Lower Mesopotamia
  • Map 1 - To illustrate operations described in Chapter VI
  • Map 2 - To illustrate fighting near Qurna
  • Map 3 - To illustrate fighting round Shaiba
  • Map 4 - To illustrate operations in Persian Arabistan
  • Map 5 - To illustrate operations in the Akaika Channel 27th June to 5th July 1915
  • Map 6 - To illustrate operations near Nasiriya 6th to 24th July 1915
  • Map 7 - To illustrate the Battle of Kut 28th September 1915
Extent and format
1 volume (223 folios)

The volume contains a page of errata (folio 5), a list of contents (folios 6-8), a list of maps and illustrations (folio 9), appendices (folios 185v-192), an index (folios 192v-214v), and eight maps in a pocket attached to the inside back cover (folios 217-224).

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the inside front cover with 1 and terminates at the inside back cover with 225; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the volume also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'HISTORY OF THE GREAT WAR BASED ON OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS. THE CAMPAIGN IN MESOPOTAMIA 1914-1918. VOLUME I.' [‎30r] (64/454), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/66/1, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 21 August 2019]

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