Skip to item: of 454
Information about this record Back to top
Open in Universal viewer
Open in Mirador IIIF viewer


The record is made up of 1 volume (223 folios). It was created in 1923. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.

Apply page layout

During this period, the garrison of Qurna and Muzaira’a
was being reduced as quickly as the few available steamers
would permit. The Turks had shown little activity here
beyond laying mines in the Tigris below the obstruction near
Ruta, and their garrison in this neighbourhood had apparently
been reduced to two battalions of infantry and six guns.
At Ahwaz the reinforcements under General Robinson had
at first had a reassuring effect. The insurgent Bawi had
been defeated by the Shaikh of Mohammerah’s loyal levies,
and there were signs that they and the other tribes in the
neighbourhood were wavering in regard to the attitude they
should adopt. But on the 20th, Wassmuss and other German
agents arrived at Shushtar on their way to Shiraz (in Fars)
and Hawiza, and the effect of the German propaganda in
Arabistan at once became more apparent. Arab cavalry
were being encountered daily within ten miles to the north
west of Ahwaz, but our own cavalry were too few in number
to be able to cope with them effectually.
The Turkish Minister at Tehran had informed the Bakhtiari
Khans that the Turkish force only intended to get behind the
British at Basra and not to invade Bakhtiari territory; and that
they had some such intention was confirmed by the news on the
27th, that four thousand Turkish troops with fourteen guns and
fifteen thousand Arabs were in camps on the Karkha river. On
the 24th the Espi&gle had visited Mashur on the Hor Musa (east
of the Shatt al Arab), to show the flag and to exhort the
Gha’ab Shaikhs to remain loyal to Mohammerah ; and on the
26th the same ship reconnoitred for some distance up the
Karun river. The attitude of the tribes east of the Karun and
the Shatt al Arab was now so threatening that small garrisons
were placed at Abadan and at Marid on the Karun river.
On the 25th the General Staff in India, in appreciating
the situation, came to the conclusion that the position in
Mesopotamia might become critical at any moment, while
that on the North-West Frontier was not so critical though
it might become so in a few months time ; and the arrest of
the chief conspirators in the Punjab had so eased the internal
situation that the Territorials and Volunteers should be able
to deal with its difficulties. The Chief of the General Staff,
however, telegraphed on the 27th to the Chief of the Imperial
General Staff that owing to the news from Egypt and from
other sources beyond the control of India being so conflicting,
he would like to receive an authoritative appreciation of the
Turkish intentions and dispositions; and he also asked if

About this item


The volume is the first volume of an official government publication compiled at the request of the Government of India, and under the direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence, by Brigadier-General Frederick James Moberly. The volume was printed and published at His Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

The contents provide a narrative of the operations of 1914-1918 in Mesopotamia, based mainly on official documents.

The volume is divided into two parts. The first part, entitled, 'Part I. Before the Outbreak of Hostilities', consists of the following five chapters:

  • General Description of the Country
  • The Turks in Mesopotamia
  • British Pre-War Policy
  • The Army in India and Pre-War Military Policy
  • Inception of the Operations

The second part, entitled, 'Part II. The Campaign in Lower Mesopotamia', consists of the following seven chapters:

  • The Landing in Mesopotamia of Force "D" and the Operations Leading to the Occupation of Basra
  • The Occupation of Basra and the Capture of Qurna
  • Commencement of the Turkish Counter-Offensive
  • Development and Defeat of the Turkish Counter-Offensive
  • Operations in Arabistan and the Capture of Amara
  • Operations on the Euphrates and the Occupation of Nasiriya
  • The battle of Kut and Occupation of Aziziya

The volume also includes nine maps, entitled:

  • The Middle East
  • Lower Mesopotamia
  • Map 1 - To illustrate operations described in Chapter VI
  • Map 2 - To illustrate fighting near Qurna
  • Map 3 - To illustrate fighting round Shaiba
  • Map 4 - To illustrate operations in Persian Arabistan
  • Map 5 - To illustrate operations in the Akaika Channel 27th June to 5th July 1915
  • Map 6 - To illustrate operations near Nasiriya 6th to 24th July 1915
  • Map 7 - To illustrate the Battle of Kut 28th September 1915
Extent and format
1 volume (223 folios)

The volume contains a page of errata (folio 5), a list of contents (folios 6-8), a list of maps and illustrations (folio 9), appendices (folios 185v-192), an index (folios 192v-214v), and eight maps in a pocket attached to the inside back cover (folios 217-224).

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the inside front cover with 1 and terminates at the inside back cover with 225; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the volume also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
View the complete information for this record

Use and share this item

Share this item
Cite this item in your research

'HISTORY OF THE GREAT WAR BASED ON OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS. THE CAMPAIGN IN MESOPOTAMIA 1914-1918. VOLUME I.' [‎101r] (206/454), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/66/1, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 20 October 2019]

Link to this item
Embed this item

Copy and paste the code below into your web page where you would like to embed the image.

<meta charset="utf-8"><a href="">'HISTORY OF THE GREAT WAR BASED ON OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS. THE CAMPAIGN IN MESOPOTAMIA 1914-1918. VOLUME I.' [&lrm;101r] (206/454)</a>
<a href="">
	<img src="!280,240/0/default.jpg" alt="" />
IIIF details

This record has a IIIF manifest available as follows. If you have a compatible viewer you can drag the icon to load it. in Universal viewerOpen in Mirador viewerMore options for embedding images

Use and reuse
Download this image