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The record is made up of 1 file (105 folios). It was created in 14 May 1942-7 Apr 1948. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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on the hands of the Wall and his Minister for External Affairs.
Happily the financial considerations which led to his suggestion of
the sale of Gwadur are now absent^ and, as is evidenced by his recent
request for an administrator, His Highness has begun to take considerable
interest in Gwadur affairs. • In view of these altered circumstances
there appears to be no objection to approaching His Highness at the pre
sent time for a definite statement of his claims and for any documentary
evidence he may possess to support them. Similar action has apparently
already been taken in the case of Kalat and in this connection reference
is invited to paragraph 4 of letter No.D.2511-N/39j dated the 19th. July,^
1939, from the Deputy Secretary to the Government of India in the Exteriy'V^
Affairs Department• Once these claims together with the evidence on whidi
they are based are known, it will be possible to form a clearer idea of
the divergency in the view points of the two States. As was perhaps to be
expected, Walls of Gwadur have taken the most extensive of the various un
derstandings of the boundary as representing their jurisdiction and perusal
of page 585 of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Gazetteer Volume II, will show that this
was considered by some to even exceed the area shown on the x map enclosed
with the Hon’ble the Agent to the Governor General in Baluchistan’s letter
by the blue pencil line, and to extend to the vicinity of Gabd in the west.
It is not unlikely that when faced with the necessity of supporting his case
with evidence His Highness the Sultan will find it difficult to press such
5. I have little information regarding the encroachments concerning w^ch
the Hon’ble the Agent to the Governor General in Baluchistan has expresses \
concern and nothing to show that the Muscat Government have gone beyond t
most extensive of the boundaries described in the Gazetteer• Their objec
tion to the construction of the route to Jiwani referred to in Governm nt^
of India telegram No.7907, dated the 6th. October, 1942, seems to have b£ .
due to the difficulty of appreciating the exact alignment of the road from
the maps available to them "in Muscat, for, from previous correspondence it
is clear that the Muscat Government make no claim to the Suntsar post.
A clear statement of the boundary as understood by the Muscat Government
would assist Political Officers in dealing with any such cases in the future
and could be expected to end any fear of gradual infiltration.
6. There is a further aspect of this matter to which I would like to
draw attention here.' Much of the bitterness now existing between the local
authorities on both sides is attributable to the resentment felt by Sultan’s
officials at Gwadur at the frequent reports of Muscat subjects being subjected
to forced labour in Kalat. The British Agent at Gwadur receives large numbers
of such complaints from camelmen returning from Tump and, from the statements
he has recorded, there appears some truth in the general allegation that_ mels
from Muscat caravans are not infrequently impounded for work for the Chir-^
of Makran. That this treatment is probably inflicted on Kalat, Persian t~nd
Muscat Subjects alike is doubtless realised, but this does not serve to miti
gate revengeful feelings in Muscat. If any action is possible to end th5.s
forced labour much of the existing bitterness would be removed and with it
the desire of the people of Gwadur to exaggerate frontier incidents so as to
keep Kalat authority at as great a distance as possible.
7. To sum up I submit that so far as Muscat is concerned (a) it is unlikely
that any practical value would be derived from attempting to arrive at a work
ing arrangement which had not received the assent of the Ruler.(b) The present
time is convenient for ascertaining the boundary claimed by Muscat and the
extent to which their claim is supported by documentary evidence. This ap
pears to be an essential preliminary to any interim arrangements for the set
tlement of the boundary cases, (c) The avoidance of boundary incidents would
be assisted by the suppression of forced labour in Kalat.
I have the honour to be,
Tour most obedient servant,
Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Muscat.

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Following on from the previous file (IOR/R/15/6/183), this file mainly concerns issues arising in relation to the boundary between Muscat-controlled Gwadur [Gwadar] and the state of Kalat. It features the following principal correspondents: the British Agent, Gwadur; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. and Consul, Muscat; the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; the Agent to the Governor-General and Chief Commissioner in Baluchistan; the Minister of External Affairs, Muscat and Oman; the Sultan of Muscat and Oman [Sa‘īd bin Taymūr Āl Bū Sa‘īd]; officials of the Government of India's External Affairs Department.

The file includes discussion of the following: reports that Kalat state authorities are building a road which will pass through Muscat territory; reports of coast watchers of Kalat state patrolling in the Gwadur area; details of the Gwadur district, including its extent and limits, its customs and its population size; reports of Muscat subjects being mistreated and subjected to forced labour in Kalat state; the case for laying down a 'working line' of the Gwadur-Kalat boundary for the benefit of British political officers on each side, and whether the Sultan of Muscat and Oman and the Khan of Kalat should both be informed of such an arrangement; whether the question of the formal demarcation of the Gwadur-Kalat boundary should be reopened; dissatisfaction among neighbouring tribal leaders near Gwadur over the Sultan of Muscat's recent decision to cease paying their annuities.

Also included in the file are four maps depicting Gwadur and the surrounding region. The Arabic language material mainly consists of correspondence between British officials in the Gulf and representatives of Muscat and Oman.

Extent and format
1 file (105 folios)

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the front to the rear of the file. Circled serial numbers (red for received correspondence; blue/black for issued correspondence) refer to entries in the notes at the rear of the file.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 107; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. An additional foliation sequence is present in parallel between ff 2-106; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'File 8/1 MUSCAT STATE AFFAIRS: GWADUR/KALAT BOUNDARY' [‎56v] (112/215), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/6/184, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 17 October 2019]

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