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The record is made up of 1 item (47 folios). It was created in 1947. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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f Har’at
the dry
5 well as
terfall is
ink, but
does not
me even
tie pools
ays cold
a slight
le by a
was cold
s of the
n nearly
baid, of
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, but we
In the
ilah and
There is
?stone at
is a safe
due to
cality at
cs means
a day of
5 gallons
an open
d in the
te plains,
as being
tot quite
e hole a
er. The
I did not
water at
1 shaped
w during
the rains and in doing so, the escaping air might emit sounds in the
same manner as the ‘oracle’ at Delphi in Greece. Such places
require study, not a few minutes’ visit, perhaps at the wrong time
of the year. However, neither the Garzaz nor the Nihaz wadis
appear to point in the direction of El Balad, and yet there is an
astonishing freshwater pool or khor there close to the seashore and
only separated from the sea by a narrow strip of coastal (beach)
20. The ruins of El Balad were fully described by H. J. Carter,
a century ago, but I do not think the full significance of this khor
or lake of freshwater, at sea-level and influenced by the rise and
fall of the tide, has yet been thoroughly appreciated. My very
hurried examination of the ruins led me to believe that the present
khor was connected with the sea, and was used as a kind of sheltered
anchorage as well as a moat for the fortified city. This would mean
that the water was sea-water. The existence of wells within the
fortifications suggests that freshwater was secured, even though the
city was surrounded by a moat and ditches filled with sea-water.
If this is true then in the years which have elapsed since a spit of
sand shut in the khor or inner part of the moat, the outward seepage
of freshwater from underground percolation has so diluted the sea
water that no salt taste can now be detected in the water of this
El Balad lake. If therefore the Ghaur Fazal marks a ‘sink-hole’
in the limestone, then this El Balad khor marks an emergence of
subterranean water which has come from the hills, Jabal Qara, under
the plains, Jurbaid, for 10 or more miles, and come in very con
siderable quantity.
21. The next river system to the east of the Nihaz wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. is
that comprising the Arbat and the tributaries—Thidot, Raithot and
Sa’a Sakh—which make up the Sahalnaut. The Arbat almost has
its source in the spring of Khiyunt far into the Qara highlands, and
the Thidot also begins at a place marked Ain which means and
marks a spring. At Fuzah on the western side above the Arbat
there is a spring (badly fouled by cattle) near the dwellings, but there
is good water in the Arbat immediately below at the spring of ’In.
There is a freshwater pool in the Sahalnaut wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. of the Bents’ map
(at the outfall of the Thidot according to Bertram Thomas). I visited
this place and should say it was a good spring in the big wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. ,
within the hills, between the Arbat (or Aqbat Sheik) gorge and
the Rizat (Ar Zat). There is a considerable loss by leakage, but
the flow in a cemented aqueduct near the pool was not less than
3 cusecs (nearly 2J times that of the Garzaz spring). It is also
led across the plain for irrigation and a very considerable loss is
evident, because, about 4 miles along from the pool, my measurement
m the open channel gave little more than | a cusec. The leakage
must travel in the general direction of Dahariz, so that, between the

About this item


This booklet contains a comprehensive geological report compiled by Sir Cyril Sankey Fox for the Omani Government in 1947. The booklet is the first general mineral audit of the southern reaches of Oman, near its border with Yemen, along with a detailed description of the geography. The mineral audit includes descriptions of potential oil deposits. The booklet also contains a map of the Dhufar coast.

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1 item (47 folios)
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English in Latin script
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'THE GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES OF DHUFAR PROVINCE, MUSCAT AND OMAN' [‎18r] (25/96), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/1422, ff 6-53, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 4 March 2024]

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