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The record is made up of 1 item (47 folios). It was created in 1947. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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of Arabia. In the Belel El Engris (north of Aden) it is often above 6,000 feet; in the
Hadhramaut (behind Makalla) the highlands average 4,500 feet above sea-level;
in the Jabal Qara and Samhan (in Dhufar) the land rises above 3,000 feet from the
coast; then in the gap (250 miles wide) west of the gulf of Masira the land is barely
600 feet above sea-level. This low-lying tract of Oman trends north-west and
appears to be physically a continuation of the trough in which lies the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran.
of today.
South of Muscat and trending north-west to south-east are the mountains of
Oman (the Western and Eastern Hajar) with heights often above 6,000 feet and peaks
to over 9,000 feet. Indeed it would seem that, physically, the main part of Arabia
belongs to the African continent (Abyssinia or Ethiopia and Somaliland) while the
mountains of Oman are part of the Iran or Persian and Baluchistan side of Asia.
Somaliland acts as a barrier to moisture-laden winds to south-western Arabia and
so it is that only the highlands of this region secure rain in any seasonal manner
whereas the Hadhramaut as a whole has a small rainfall, diminishing eastwards to
practically nil. The mountains of Oman receive the south-west (wet) monsoon and
secure rain from these winds in July to September, and they also secure some rain
during the north-east monsoon in January, and as a result the slopes of the Jabal
Hajar are forest-clad (whereas the highlands of the Yemen are largely wood
land slopes). And the highlands of Dhufar are also covered by woodland and forest
in spite of the fact that they are half-way between Muscat and Aden on the coast of
southern area and on the borders of the desert tract which comes to the sea at the
gulf of Masira.
The explanation of this evidence of rainfall and reasonable climate is that the
Jabal Qara and Samhan of Dhufar are within the edge of the moisture-laden winds
of the south-west mosoon. The accompanying chart shows that these winds traverse
no area of land as they blow northwards along the Somaliland coast, and therefor^
arrive over Dhufar saturated with moisture. The highlands of Dhufar, averaging
3,000 to 3,500 feet, function in the same manner as the Western Ghats of Malabar
and secure from 25 to 30 inches of rain in a strictly local manner. To the north
eastwards these moisture-laden winds from the south and south-west pass over the
low desert region without precipitating their moisture until they encounter the
mountains of Oman. The north-east monsoon supplies a little rain to Dhufar, but
the climate of this province of the Sultanate of Oman, and its abundant water-
supply, is almost wholly due to the south-west monsoon. If Somaliland extended
further eastward, Dhufar would be as hopeless a desert as the A 1 Rimal to the north,
and if the Somaliland barrier was removed, the whole of south-western Arabia would
enjoy the climate of Dhufar, while Dhufar would probably have an even more
temperate climate than it has.

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This booklet contains a comprehensive geological report compiled by Sir Cyril Sankey Fox for the Omani Government in 1947. The booklet is the first general mineral audit of the southern reaches of Oman, near its border with Yemen, along with a detailed description of the geography. The mineral audit includes descriptions of potential oil deposits. The booklet also contains a map of the Dhufar coast.

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1 item (47 folios)
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English in Latin script
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'THE GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES OF DHUFAR PROVINCE, MUSCAT AND OMAN' [‎51v] (92/96), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/1422, ff 6-53, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 4 March 2024]

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