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'Military report on Tehran and adjacent Provinces of North-West Persia (including the Caspian Littoral)' [‎8v] (21/610)

The record is made up of 1 volume (301 folios). It was created in 1922. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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1 R. G. Watson’s “/History of Persia, ” page 242.
1 '* It was fixed that Russian traders should enjoy in Persia
all the privileges accorded to the subjects of the most favoured
nation. Goods passing from one country to the other were to
be subjected to one sole duty of 5 per cent, levied at the frontier.
Russian subjects were to have the right to acquire en tovte
propriete habitable houses and magazines into which the em-
ployes of the Persian Government should not have the right
of penetrating by force, except by the sanction of the Russian
Minister or Consul. The representatives of Russia, with
the gentlemen attached to them, and the consuls of the same
nation, were to have the privilege of being allowed to import
free from duty all kinds of articles which should be intended
solely for their own use, and Persian officials were to enjoy
Russian protection in the same manner as Russian subjects.
The settlement of all disputes between Russian subjects in
Persia was to be entirely confided to the Minister or Consul
of his Imperial Majesty; the treatment of them to be according
to the laws of Russia. Disputes between subjects of the two
Governments were to be settled by the two courts of religious
law and equity, but a Russian employe was to be present
during the hearing of each case.”
This treaty of Turkomanchal is very important as accord'
ing special rights to Russian subjects in Persia and so to
some extent infringing on the Independent Sovereignty of the
Shah, and as the basis of all subsequent treaties made with
Persia by other European powers who have been content to
stipulate that its provisions should apply to their nationals.
The lesson of 1828 was not forgotten. Persia was chastened,
and the rapid growth of Russia rendered her too formidable
for the Persians to venture on further opposition.
From 1838 to 1881 Russia turned her attention to Central
Asia, and to the eastern coast of the Caspian, where she
subdued the Turkomans who had nominally been under Persian
suzerainty. Russian control of the Southern Casnian had
•been facilitated by the occupation in 1840 of the'island of
Ashuradeh, at the entrance to the Gulf of Astarabad, as a
naval base against the Turkoman pirates, and her advance
m the regions East of the Caspian had made Russia con
terminous with Persia along the whole length of the Persian
Northern frontier.
During the period she sought to increase her influence at
lehran, at the expense of Great Britain. Russian policy was

About this item


Military report compiled by Captain LS Fortescue of the General Staff of the Mesopotamia Expeditionary Force and printed in Calcutta at the Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1922.

The volume begins with a statement defining the geographical area covered by the report. The report is divided into ten chapters, plus appendices, each concerning a different subject, as follows:

  • Chapter 1: History
  • Chapter 2: Geography
  • Chapter 3: Climate, Water, Medical and Aviation
  • Chapter 4: Ethnography
  • Chapter 5: Administration (including a table of provinces with administrative details (folios 123-30)
  • Chapter 6: Armed Forces of the Persian Government
  • Chapter 7: Economic Resources
  • Chapter 8: Tribes
  • Chapter 9: Personalities
  • Chapter 10: Communications
  • Appendices: Glossary of terms; Weights, measures and coinage; Bibliography; Historical sketch (Chapter 1) continued from June 1920 to the end of 1921

At the back of the volume (folio 302) is a map to illustrate the report.

Extent and format
1 volume (301 folios)

There is a contents page (folio 5) and list of illustrations (folio 6) at the front of the volume and an index at the back (folios 270-300). All refer to the volume's original pagination. The index also includes map references of all places marked on the map.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 303; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the file also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'Military report on Tehran and adjacent Provinces of North-West Persia (including the Caspian Littoral)' [‎8v] (21/610), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/MIL/17/15/23, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 28 January 2020]

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