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Coll 17/18(2) 'Smuggling between Kuwait and Iraq' [‎79v] (158/889)

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The record is made up of 1 file (443 folios). It was created in 15 Jun 1935-14 May 1942. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

Transcription

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The question of simiggling generally from Koweit
into Iraq is one of considerable difficulty which has
defied all attempts hitherto made to solve it. The
position is that Koweit - pending the production of oil -f
produces 'nothing but grass' and is dependent absolutely
on its entrepot trade with the interior. Saudi Arabia
has been closed to it since about 1924, though some
progress has been made towards the negotiation of
agreements by His Majesty's Government with Saudi Arabia
on behalf of Koweit v/hich will remove the blockade. Onl[y
Iraq is left. The landing and transport charges for
goods passing to Iraq through Koweit are such that there jis
really no opening for legitimate trade with Iraq. But
illicit trade pays, owing to the great difference between
the Iraq and Koweit tariffs. There is no legal obligation
on Koweit to stop the smuggling. The responsibility
for that rests entirely on Iraq which alleges it cannot
control smuggling v/ithout Koweit's cooperation. The
Iraqis complain of the great expense they would have to
incur in order effectively to control their desert
frontier, but the real reason for their failure
to control it effectively seems to be twofold - (a) fear
of arousing the hostility of the tribesmen of the lov/er
Euphrates, v/ho are the chief participants in the actual
smuggling, and (b) a reluctance to deal firmly v/ith
the organisations in Iraq (traders and possibly some
officials) which benefit from the smuggling. Unwilling
to incur the odium and expense of effective measures
of control, the Iraqis for years past have tried to
get the Sheikh to co-operate, i.e. to share the odium
if not the expense. In 1932 and 1934 they suggested
proposals, resembling those recently put forward in
London/
cf. P.Z.988/38.
C P. Z.4986/34_7
/ P.Z. 2615/37/
/-

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Content

This file is a continuation of IOR/L/PS/12/2878, and contains papers regarding the alleged smuggling of goods from Kuwait to Iraq, and attempts to broker Often a local commercial agent in the Gulf who regularly performed duties of intelligence gathering and political representation. an agreement between the Shaikh of Kuwait (Shaikh Aḥmad al-Jābir Āl Ṣabāḥ) and the Government of Iraq with regards to the prevention of smuggling and the establishment of effective frontier controls. It consists of correspondence between the Foreign Office, Colonial Office, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Kuwait, and HM High Commissioner (and later Ambassador) at Baghdad, as well as communications received from Al Sabah and representatives of the Government of Iraq.

The bulk of the correspondence concerns efforts by HM Ambassador at Iraq, the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , and the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Kuwait, to broker Often a local commercial agent in the Gulf who regularly performed duties of intelligence gathering and political representation. an agreement between the two parties. This included discussion of Iraqi proposals to assume control of Kuwaiti customs, to instigate joint border-controls and a manifest system for goods transported by land or sea, or to impose Kuwaiti tariffs on imports at the same rate as Iraqi tariffs. Later correspondence discusses the negotiation of an anti-smuggling agreement between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, and a proposed customs union between Kuwait and Iraq. The correspondence makes reference to on-going negotiations over the Kuwait-Iraq border, and the Iraqi date gardens owned by the Shaikh of Kuwait.

There is a small quantity of correspondence from 1941 between the Government of Iraq, the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , and the Ottoman Bank at Baghdad, regarding currency smuggling, money laundering, and the purchase of Indian rupees.

The file includes dividers which give lists of correspondence references contained in the file by year. These are placed at the end of the correspondence (folios 2-3).

Extent and format
1 file (443 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in rough chronological order from the rear to the front of the file.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the last folio with 444; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. An additional foliation sequence is present in parallel between ff 2-444; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled.

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English in Latin script
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Coll 17/18(2) 'Smuggling between Kuwait and Iraq' [‎79v] (158/889), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/2879, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100064979936.0x0000a1> [accessed 12 November 2019]

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