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'SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS AND MEASURES OF THE VICEROYALTY OF HIS EXCELLENCY LORD CURZON OF KEDLESTON, VICEROY AND GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF INDIA IN THE FOREIGN DEPARTMENT. I. JANUARY 1899-APRIL 1904. II. DECEMBER 1904-NOVEMBER 1905. VOLUME IV. PERSIA AND THE PERSIAN GULF.' [‎41r] (86/386)

The record is made up of 1 volume (189 folios). It was created in 1907. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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Paslia, a rebellious Muntafik Chief of Turkish Arabia with whom Sheikh Muba
rak was in friendly relations, made a sudden and successful raid upon the terri
tories and subjects of Ibn Hash id. In October IDUO Ibn Rashid descended
from his desert fastnesses to the neighbourhood of Samawah with the purpose
of attacking Sadun, to whose assistance the Sheikh of Koweit immediately pro
ceeded, and a collision appeared to be imminent upon the borders of Turkish
territory. The Turkish Wali of Basrah, however, who was well disposed to
Mubarak, intervened between the combatants ; Ibn Rashid was persuaded to
return to Central Arabia in consideration of a promise that Sadun would be
punished by the Turks, and Mubarak was induced to pay a visit to the Wali
at a place near Zobeir in Turkish territory, where a Turkish decoration was
conferred upon him.
The results of this pacification were transient. In December 1900 the
Sheikh of Koweit, notwithstanding that he had been warned by the Govern
ment of India to avoid activity giving the Turks a pretext for interference,
undertook, in concert with Sadun Pasha, a serious invasion of Central Arabia
in the interests of Ibn Sand. He soon reached Hafar and, after a temporary
retirement, advanced into Kasim where bis successes were rapid and brilliant.
In March 1901, however, he met with a decided reverse, in which his army was
dispersed, and was obliged to return to Koweit.
The Turks immediately took advantage of Mubarak’s weakened position to
press their designs on Koweit. In May 1901 the Wali of Basrah visited
Koweit and tried to intimidate the Sheikh into accepting a Turkish garrison at
his capital; hut the Sheikh would not agree, and shortly afterwards he applied
to the British Senior Naval Officer in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. to be taken under a
regular British protectorate. The position was immediately placed by Lord
Curzon before 11 is Majesty’s Government together with a statement of the
alternative policies between which a choice lay. The motives which prompted
the Sheikh’s request were selfish; he was afraid of Ion Rashid and of the
Turks, and he merely turned to the British Government as the least exacting
of his neighbours. It was open to His Majesty’s Government to declare
an open protectorate over Koweit, and this in Lord Curzon’s opinion was
the inevitable ultimate solution of the question; on the other hand, it was
also possible to maintain the patchwork status quo^ but this was a make
shift which would not stop intrigue, and it would cover a policy which
in the last resort was indistinguishable from a protectorate. His Majesty’s
Government were unwilling to incur the difficulties and embarrassments
which might result from the deelaration of a protectorate ; but they authorised
the Government of India to inform Mubarak that, while his request for a
protectorate could not be granted, the British Government would observe their
agreement with him provided that he on his part adhered to his engagements
with Government. A suggestion by Lord Curzon that the Sheikh should
he advised to discontinue the use of the Turkish flag, replacing it by the red
flag of an independent Arab Chief, did not commend itself to His Majesty’s
Government. The assurance authorised by the Secretary of State reached
Mubarak on the 23rd of August 19ol, and two days later an attempt was
made by the commander of the Turkish war vessel “ Zuhaf ”, then at Koweit,
to extort from the Sheikh an admission of Turkish sovereignty. Diplo
matic discussions at Constantinople ensued, in which the German Embassy
participated on the Turkish side, and at the beginning of September a settle
ment was arranged on the basis of a mutual maintenance of the existing
(but imperfectly defined) position : the Turks were at the same time informed
that interference by them with Koweit would not be tolerated. This arrange
ment however did not alleviate the strained situation which prevailed at the
place itself. In September 1901 raids were made by Ibn Rasbid into Koweit
territory and a large number of Mubarak’s Bedouin subjects flocked in from
the desert and took refuge from attack under the walls of the town. Lord
Curzon authorised the British naval authorities to repel any assault by Ibn
Rashid upon Koweit town, but he directed that the Atnir should be first
warned, tif possible, that British troops would assist in the defence of the place.
British gunboats were accordingly placed in readiness to meet the expected
attack and general measures of defense were arranged which restored confidence

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Content

Printed at the GC [Government Central] Press, Simla.

The volume is divided into three parts: Part I (folios 5-47) containing an introduction; Part II (folios 48-125) containing a detailed account; and Part III (folios 126-188) containing despatches and correspondence connected with Part I Chapter IV ('The Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ', folios 28-47).

Part I gives an overview of policy and events in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. region during Curzon's period as Viceroy [1899-1905], with sections on British policy in Persia; the maintenance and extension of British interests; Seistan [Sīstān]; and the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Part II contains more detailed accounts of selected topics, including sections on British policy in Persia, customs and finance, quarantine, administration, communications, and British and Russian activity in Seistan. The despatches and correspondence in Part III include correspondence from the Government of India in the Foreign Department, the Secretary of State for India, and the Viceroy; addresses and speeches by Curzon; and notes of interviews between Curzon and local rulers.

Mss Eur F111/531-534 consist of four identical printed and bound volumes. However, the four volumes each show a small number of different manuscript annotations and corrections.

This volume contains manuscript additions on folios 8, 11-12, 14, 42 (a sixteen word note concerning the use by the Shaikh of Koweit [Kuwait] of a distinctive colour [flag] for Kuwait shipping), and 62-66.

Extent and format
1 volume (189 folios)
Arrangement

The volume contains a list of Parts I-III on folio 4; a table of contents of Part I on folio 6; a table of contents of Part II on folio 49; and a table of contents of Part III on folios 127-129, which gives a reference to the paragraph of Part I Chapter IV that the despatch or correspondence is intended to illustrate.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 191; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Pagination: the file also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS AND MEASURES OF THE VICEROYALTY OF HIS EXCELLENCY LORD CURZON OF KEDLESTON, VICEROY AND GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF INDIA IN THE FOREIGN DEPARTMENT. I. JANUARY 1899-APRIL 1904. II. DECEMBER 1904-NOVEMBER 1905. VOLUME IV. PERSIA AND THE PERSIAN GULF.' [‎41r] (86/386), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F111/534, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100070118029.0x000057> [accessed 23 August 2019]

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