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'File 8/67 MUSCAT STATE AFFAIRS: MUSCAT – OMAN TREATY.' [‎8r] (20/316)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (154 folios). It was created in 14 Oct 1920-27 Jul 1934. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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(4) foreign interference* This appeared in the eyes of t
the fanatical and ignorant Omanis to be directed
against their most cherished rights such as the
importation of arms and slaves* In these the Sultan s
acquiesced without consulting his subjects accepting
large sums of money for his acquiescence# not one
penny of which money the Omanis ever saw*
At the some time our policy in 2ansibar
lost nothing in the telling*
Several of the reasons why the Sultans were
un* ble to cope with the rebellion are contained in
these* But to them may be added three more* The loss
of Zanzibar and its revenues* the loss of sea power
owing to the introduction of steam, and finally and
most important of all the effects of British
When considering our policy in Huscat and
Uman this last point must never be lost sight of*
A brief perusal of the treaties and engagements
with the rulers of Muscat will show that our
influence has been entirely self interested, has
paid no regard to the peculiar political and socicl
conditions of the country and its rulers, and by
bribing effete Sultans to enforce unpalatable
measures which benefitted none but ourselves, and
permitting them to misrule without protest has done
more to alienate the interior and to prevent the
Sultans from re-establishing their authority than
all the rest put together* In other words it hae
been support wrongly applied, in money and not in
essentials, interference in external affairs which
must have seriously reacted upon internal peace
and no palliative except money which was thrown
into the sea or worse by those into whose hands we

About this item


This volume concerns relations between the Sultan of Muscat and Oman and the tribes of interior Oman. The volume contains multiple copies of notes produced in October 1920 by the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. and Consul at Muscat, providing a British perspective on the history of political affairs in Muscat and Oman from the late 18th century to the present day (ff 6-22, ff 49-53 and ff 56-60). The notes attempt to summarise the underlying causes of the tense relations between the Sultan and the Omani tribes, before going on to document events during the period October 1919-October 1920, which culminated with the re-establishment of peaceful relations, following the conclusion of an agreement between the two parties (the Treaty of Sib, concluded on 25 September 1920). Related items include multiple copies of the English text of the 1920 agreement (ff 23-26, ff 53-55, and ff 60-62), and a Photostat copy of the Arabic text of the concluding part of the Treaty (f 154).

The volume also documents the Sultan's relations with the Omani tribes in the years following the treaty. There is a series of letters written in 1924 between the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. and Shaikh Isa bin Saleh [Shaikh ‘Īsá bin Ṣāliḥ al-Ḥārthī], who makes a request to import ammunition and protests against taxes that he claims contravene the Treaty of Sib. The correspondence dated 1932-1934 largely concerns the murder of a Muscat Government clerk at Sib, and the Sultan's frustration with the evasive response of Shaikh Isa bin Saleh on the matter. Also discussed in this part of the volume is the question of whether the Treaty of Sib will be renewed.

In addition to the treaty text mentioned above, the Arabic language material mainly consists of correspondence between the British and Muscat authorities and various shaikhs and subjects of interior Oman (English translations are included).The volume includes copies of correspondence originally written in 1919. There is no material covering the periods 1922-1923, 1925-1931, and no material dated after 1934, with the exception of a note at the rear of the volume, which is dated 16 October 1961.

Extent and format
1 volume (154 folios)

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the front to the rear of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 156; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'File 8/67 MUSCAT STATE AFFAIRS: MUSCAT – OMAN TREATY.' [‎8r] (20/316), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/6/264, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 15 November 2019]

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