Coll 30/159 'Ownership of Hawar Islands.' [12r] (23/361)
The record is made up of 1 file (179 folios). It was created in 29 Apr 1936-15 Oct 1942. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
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- 2 -
. 1940 I
Bahrain Government erected their "national mark" on this
reef as well as on Oattah al Jarada in the winter of
1937-38 and no protest was ever made by the Shaikh of Qatar*
Only last January when the Bahrain Petroleum Company were
undertaking a s el sinograph ic survey of these reefs their
dynamite barge went adrift in a storm from the lee of Battah
al Jarada and was salvaged on the Qatar Coast* I had some
correspondence with the dhaikh of Qatar at the time about its
return and it is significant that the Shaikh did not mention
any objections to their operations on and around these reefs*
If I am instructed to enquire from the Shaikh of Qatar whether
he claims them he will undoubtedly accept the implied sugges
tion and make a claim — neither he nor any other Arab Kuler
would miss so admirable an opportunity* In view however of
his silence during the past two years since the Bahrain marks
were erected I see little purpose in doing so* On the other
hand I suggest that the uncontested exhibition of the Bahrain
Government marks for so long a period is sufficient to estab
lish Bahrain rights. I might mention incidentally that my
informatlon y which I have not personally checked by observa
tion at high spring tides, is that a small part of both
these reefs remains exposed at all states of the tide.
4. On the larger question of marking a dividing line
between the interests of Bahrain and Qatar in the waters
separating the two States I am unable to express any very
definite views. Apart from the Rawer group, Fasht al Dibal
and Qattah al Jarada, there are several snail islets in these
waters, outside the three mile limit from the Qatar shore, to
all of which Bahrain laid claim two years ago by the erection
of national marks. If it is accepted that this act, which has
not been contested by Qatar, establishes Bahrain claim to
sovreigri^ty, then presumably Bahrain also obtains jurisdiction
over areas of sea within the three mile limit around each of
the islets. This however still leaves a vary considerable
About this item
The file concerns the disputed claims of the rulers of Bahrain and Qatar to sovereignty over the Hawar Islands. The issue arose afresh in 1936 in response to a request from Petroleum Concessions Limited to settle the issue of ownership, in order that the Company could claim oil concession rights over the island as part of the concession not previously allocated to the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO) (the Bahrain Unallotted Area).
The papers contain statements of evidence on both sides, and correspondence discussing the question from the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Bahrain; the Foreign Office; Petroleum Concessions Limited; the Government of Bahrain; and the two rulers concerned. The British Government decided in 1939, after examining the evidence, that the islands belonged to Bahrain (folio 44). The papers show that the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Geoffrey Prior, challenged the validity of this judgement in 1941, stating that the case had been decided 'according to western ideas, and no allowance has been made for local custom and sentiment' (folios 6-8). However, a subsequent letter on the subject from the Government of India to the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. concluded that it was then too late to reverse the decision (folio 4).
The Arabic language content of the papers consists of approximately five folios; these include photographs of judgements (with translation, folios 57-58) submitted by the Government of Bahrain to the British Government, showing that the Bahrain Court had exercised jurisdiction in legal cases concerning residents of Hawar (folios 130-133).
The file also includes photographs of places in Hawar (folios 126-127).
The file includes a divider, which gives a list of correspondence references contained in the file by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence.
- Extent and format
- 1 file (179 folios)
The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the file.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 181; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Two additional foliation sequences are also present in parallel between ff 3-179, and ff 48-88; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled.
- Written in
- English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script View the complete information for this record
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- Coll 30/159 'Ownership of Hawar Islands.'
- front, front-i, 2r:18v, 19v:22v, 24r:24v, 28r:29v, 30v:38v, 42r:49v, 60r:67v, 85v, 86v, 87v, 88v:102v, 105r:111v, 114r:115v, 125r:125v, 128r:129r, 134r:137v, 140r:166v, 169r:170v, 176r:177v, 180r:180v, back
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