Coll 30/117 'Persian Gulf. Bahrain Grievances of the Baharinah.' [69v] (138/203)
The record is made up of 1 file (100 folios). It was created in 30 May 1935-11 Aug 1939. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
should he taken hy the Bahrein Government to deal with
the Baharinah, the Resident proposes at the end of his
despatch (para. 16) that he should he authorised hy the
Government of India to give the Sheikh (on hehalf of
H.M.G.) a homily in general terms on the desirability
of making the Bahrein constitution more democratic.
He proposes indeed to tell the Sheikh that autocracy
(i.e. the patriarchal, tribal form of Government still
common to most parts of Arabia) is out of date and that
governments must now depend to a large extent on the
public opinion of the majority of their subjects, in the
case of Bahrein, the Baharinah. Colonel Fowle proposes
also to add that if the legitimate aspirations of the
Baharinah are not met and should trouble occur the
Sheikh can hardly look for sympathy to H.M.G. who are
about to give self-government to India.
9. The Government of India have sent us for
concurrence a draft of the reply (flagged) which they
propose to send to the Resident’s despatch. This
draft is fairly short and is worth reading in full.
The Government of India suggest that it is desirable to
proceed with caution in the matter of imposing on the
Sheikh a measure of political reforms, which is more
or less what the Resident’s proposed homily on democracy
would amount to. They point out that since the
Baharinah majority are still regarded as a subject
community^a movement in the direction of government
according to the will of such a majority might lead to
trouble with the other communities and might even have
repercussions outside Bahrein. The Government of India
consider that the parallel which the Resident draws
between the situation in Bahrein and the situation which
led to the introduction of constitutional reforms in India
is not wholly Opposite, and that^though a somewhat
About this item
The papers in this file relate to the grievances of the Baharnah (the native population of Bahrain). The papers include: The petition of the Baharnah to the Ruler of Bahrain Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa requesting the adoption of a Qanun (code of laws) in the courts, proportional representation in the Majalis al Tujjarah and Baladiyyah at Manama and Muharraq, and restoration of their rights on the Board of Education, 30 December 1934-21 April 1936; the reservations of the Secretary of State for India the 2nd Marquess of Zetland about providing constitutional advice to the Gulf principalities, 20-27 September 1935; the instructions from the Government of India on reforming the courts of Bahrain, proportional representation, education, and pasturage of the Ruler’s camels, 6 November 1935-22 February 1936; the growth of popular movements in Kuwait, Debai [Dubai], and Bahrain, 18 July-16 November 1938; the agitation against the Shi’a Shar’ Court, Bahraini courts, and the educational system in Bahrain, a strike on the premises of the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO), and a demonstration in the bazaar at Manama, 31 October-24 November 1938; a request by Shaikh Hamad for the recruitment of two Egyptian or Sudanese magistrates to compile a civil and criminal ‘Bahrain Code’ from all previously issued a’lans and to provide practical advice to current magistrates inside and outside the courts of Bahrain, 24 November 1938-5 August 1939; the report of the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Lieutenant Colonel T C W Fowle to the Secretary to the Government of India in the External Affairs Department Sir Herbert Aubrey Francis Metcalfe on future policy towards popular agitation in Bahrain, 14 April-23 May 1939; and the Ruler of Dubai Shaikh Sa’id bin Maktoum Al Maktoum’s forcible dissolution of the Majlis in Dubai, 5-15 June 1939.
The correspondence in this file is primarily between the British Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. in Bahrain; Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. at Bushire [Bushehr]; Deputy Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign and Political Department; Foreign Secretary to the Government of India; Secretary of State for India; India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; Secretary of the Government of India in the External Affairs Department; Foreign Office; HM Ambassador to Egypt; and the Ruler of Bahrain.
- Extent and format
- 1 file (100 folios)
The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the file.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the last folio with 101; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. An additional foliation sequence is present in parallel between ff 76-101; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled.
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- Coll 30/117 'Persian Gulf. Bahrain Grievances of the Baharinah.'
- front, front-i, 2r:43v, 47r:90v, 94r:101v, back
- East India Company, the Board of Control, the India Office, or other British Government Department
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