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Coll 30/117 'Persian Gulf. Bahrain Grievances of the Baharinah.' [‎70r] (139/203)

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The record is made up of 1 file (100 folios). It was created in 30 May 1935-11 Aug 1939. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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Minute Paper.
Department
closer parallel might be drawn with the situation in
certain Indian states the Resident’s proposals would
connote a policy of greater interference in Bahrein
affairs than they would be prepared to adopt in the
case of an Indian State, and would imply the creation
of a state of affairs in Bahrein resembling Paramountcy*
They state that they could not agree to any suggestion
that the rights and responsibilities of Paramountcy
govern the relations of H.M. 0. and the Government of
India with Bahrein. It seems to me that the Government
of India slightly overstress this latter point, though
it is unnecessary to contest their view.In theory they
are no doubt right, but in practice H.M.G. are the
Paramount power in Bahrein as was shown when we deposed
Sheikh Isa in 1923.
10. With reference to the specific measures
to be taken the Government of India disagree with the
Resident’s suggestion that the presence of the Adviser
on the Joint Courts should be dispensed with, a system
which has worked well in practice and to which the
inhabitants have become accustomed; they suggest that
if Mr.Belgrave is over-worked the proper solution is
The Government of
India do not
mention the
Resident’s
suggestion for a to provide him once more with an Assistant; they
Baharinah Joint
Judge but it seemsconsider that representations might well be made to
clear that such a
proposal would the Sheikh regarding the miscarriages of justice of which
arouse the keen
resentment not onlythe AlKhalifah judge was guilty in the Adviser’s absence,
of the Ruling
Family but of the They agree that existing Government proclamations should
other communities.
be codified and that the introduction of a simple
Criminal Code, founded on the Indian Penal Code, such as
the Sudan Penal Code, has much to commend it. They
I
agree generally with the action taken by the Sheikh in
connection with the representation of the Baharinah
on the Municipal Councils and on the Commercial Court,
2956
6000 7/34

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The papers in this file relate to the grievances of the Baharnah (the native population of Bahrain). The papers include: The petition of the Baharnah to the Ruler of Bahrain Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa requesting the adoption of a Qanun (code of laws) in the courts, proportional representation in the Majalis al Tujjarah and Baladiyyah at Manama and Muharraq, and restoration of their rights on the Board of Education, 30 December 1934-21 April 1936; the reservations of the Secretary of State for India the 2nd Marquess of Zetland about providing constitutional advice to the Gulf principalities, 20-27 September 1935; the instructions from the Government of India on reforming the courts of Bahrain, proportional representation, education, and pasturage of the Ruler’s camels, 6 November 1935-22 February 1936; the growth of popular movements in Kuwait, Debai [Dubai], and Bahrain, 18 July-16 November 1938; the agitation against the Shi’a Shar’ Court, Bahraini courts, and the educational system in Bahrain, a strike on the premises of the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO), and a demonstration in the bazaar at Manama, 31 October-24 November 1938; a request by Shaikh Hamad for the recruitment of two Egyptian or Sudanese magistrates to compile a civil and criminal ‘Bahrain Code’ from all previously issued a’lans and to provide practical advice to current magistrates inside and outside the courts of Bahrain, 24 November 1938-5 August 1939; the report of the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Lieutenant Colonel T C W Fowle to the Secretary to the Government of India in the External Affairs Department Sir Herbert Aubrey Francis Metcalfe on future policy towards popular agitation in Bahrain, 14 April-23 May 1939; and the Ruler of Dubai Shaikh Sa’id bin Maktoum Al Maktoum’s forcible dissolution of the Majlis in Dubai, 5-15 June 1939.

The correspondence in this file is primarily between the British Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. in Bahrain; Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. at Bushire [Bushehr]; Deputy Secretary to the Government of India in the Foreign and Political Department; Foreign Secretary to the Government of India; Secretary of State for India; India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; Secretary of the Government of India in the External Affairs Department; Foreign Office; HM Ambassador to Egypt; and the Ruler of Bahrain.

Extent and format
1 file (100 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the file.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the last folio with 101; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. An additional foliation sequence is present in parallel between ff 76-101; these numbers are also written in pencil, but are not circled.

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English in Latin script
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Coll 30/117 'Persian Gulf. Bahrain Grievances of the Baharinah.' [‎70r] (139/203), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/3846, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100077459321.0x00008e> [accessed 5 December 2019]

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