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'PRINCIPAL DESPATCHES AND CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO PERSIA CONNECTED WITH THE SUMMARY OF EVENTS AND MEASURES OF VICEROYALTY OF HIS EXCELLENCY LORD CURZON OF KEDDLESTON IN THE FOREIGN DEPARTMENT. JANUARY 1899 TO NOVEMBER 1905. VOLUME IV-PART IV. PERSIA.' [‎22v] (49/136)

The record is made up of 1 volume (64 folios). It was created in 1908. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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22. Our inspection of the various sub-areas composing what we have
described as the British sphere, has now brought us to the Persian Gulf—a
subject which—no doubt from its more exclusively Indian aspect and bearing—.
has only been lightly touched upon by Sir M. Durand, but upon which it is
necessary that we should address Your Lordship at greater length.
23. The de jure position in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. is that of a sea open to the flag
of all nations, the northern shores and territorial waters of which are included
in the dominions of Persia, while its western and southern coasts are partially
owned and partially claimed by Turkey, or are in the occupation of Arab tiibes,
who have entered into treaty relationships of varying character, constituting a
sort of veiled Protectorate, with Great Britain. The islands in the Gulf are
owned either by Persia, or by Arab Chiefs (in the case of Bahrein under British
protection); but upon one of the Persian Islands, viz., Kishm, Great Britain pos
sesses a piece of land by virtue of an original grant from the Imam of Maskat,
to whom the island once belonged. Outside the entrance to the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ,
but included in the same political system, are, on the northern shore of the
Arabian Sea, the coasts of Persian Baluchistan, along which the overland wires
of the Indo-European Telegraph Company run as far as Jask, where a reserve of
English territory exists under an agreement concluded in 1887 between the
British and Persian Governments, and where a detachment of Indian troops,
who had previously been stationed there between the years 1879 and 1887, was
replaced in January 1898 in consequence of the murder of a British telegraph
official and the disturbed state of Persian Baluchistan. A larger detachment
was at the same time despatched to Charbar, near the eastern limits of the
same province. On the southern and western coasts is the still independent
kingdom or Sultanate of Oman (Maskat).
24. The de facto position upon the waters and on the shores of the Persian
Gulf reflects a more positive British predominance than the preceding paragraph
might indicate. In the early years of the present century, the slave trade was
rampant in the Gulf, and the vessels of the Indian Marine were engaged
in a long and arduous struggle with the Arab pirates who infested its southern
coasts. This conflict which was conducted entirely by British agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. and
means, without any help from the Persian Government, resulted in the establish
ment of treaty relations with the great majority of the Arab Chiefs, under
which they bound themselves to observe perpetual peace and to refer all
disputes to the British Resident at Bushire. The pax Britanniea, which has
ever since, with rare exceptions, been maintained, is the issue of these arrange
ments and is the exclusive work of this country. Of similar origin were the
soundings of the channels and the surveys of the shores of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ,
which the navigators of all nations owe to the labours of a long line of naval
officers of the Indian service. Meanwhile, British trade has acquired almost a
monopoly of the foreign commerce of the Gulf ports. Indian Bunias from
Shikarpur and other parts of Sind have settled in considerable numbers at
Lingah, Bunder Abbas, Bushire and Bahrein. They frequently farm the
customs. The foreign imports and exports pass through their hands. These are
for the most part conveyed to and from the Gulf in British ships, more than one
Anglo-Indian Company (the ‘ British India ’, the 4 Bombay and Persia’, and the
Anglo-Arabian and Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ’) having maintained for years a merchant
steamer service between Karachi and Basrah, touching at the Gulf ports on the
way, whilst the lival ventures that have occasionally been attempted by foreign
nations have uniformly failed and have been withdrawn.
25. As the result of careful calculations of the trade returns of the three
yeais, 1895-96-97, which are the latest at our disposal, we have ascertained that
the total value of Imports and Exports in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (including the
Persian ports of Bunder Abbas, Lingah, Bushire, and Mohammerah; the Arab
por^s on the opposite coast; and Bahrein) in that triennial period amounted to
£17,241,300 (at the rate of Rs. 15=£1). Of this total, Local trade accounted
for £5 124,000, and External trade for £12,117,300; while of the latter total
the trade with British possessions (including India) amounted to £9,709,500,

About this item

Content

Published by Superintendent Government Printing, India, Calcutta.

The volume consists of a draft Part IV to the Summary of the Principal Events and Measures of the Viceroyalty of His Excellency Lord Curzon of Keddleston, Viceroy and Governor-General of India in the Foreign Department. I. January 1899-April 1904. II. December 1904-November 1905. Volume IV. Persia and the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Parts I-III), published by GC [Government Central] Press, Simla, 1907 [Mss Eur F111/531-534].

The volume includes a letter from the Foreign Department, Government of India, to Lord Curzon, dated 27 August 1908, stating that an examination of their records had shown that these were the essential despatches, and hoping that the volume would answer Lord Curzon's purpose.

The despatches and correspondence cover the period 1899-1905, and include correspondence from the Secretary of State for India, and HBM's Minister at Tehran, and cover the question of the appointment of an additional consular officer in Persia, 1899 (with map); relations between Britain and Persia; the protection of British interests in Persia; British policy on Persia; the political and financial situation in Persia; and the threat of Russian encroachment.

Extent and format
1 volume (64 folios)
Arrangement

The despatches and correspondence are arranged in chronological order from the front to the rear of the volume. There is a list of contents on folio 6, giving details of name and date of paper, subject, and page number.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 66; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Pagination: the volume also contains an original manuscript pagination sequence.

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'PRINCIPAL DESPATCHES AND CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO PERSIA CONNECTED WITH THE SUMMARY OF EVENTS AND MEASURES OF VICEROYALTY OF HIS EXCELLENCY LORD CURZON OF KEDDLESTON IN THE FOREIGN DEPARTMENT. JANUARY 1899 TO NOVEMBER 1905. VOLUME IV-PART IV. PERSIA.' [‎22v] (49/136), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F111/535, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100083163671.0x000032> [accessed 25 August 2019]

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