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Miscellaneous correspondence, reports, maps and other papers concerning the Middle East [‎14v] (29/220)

The record is made up of 1 file (110 folios). It was created in 27 Aug 1893-19 Dec 1918. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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2. That, like other Sheikhs on the Arab side of the Gulf, he should co-operate for
the observation and maintenance of the maritime truce, i.e., the suppression
of piracy and the pursuit of inter-tribal hostilities by the passage of armed
dhows at sea.
3. That he should co-operate for the suppression of the arms traffic.
4. That British traders should be freely admitted to Katif and properly treated
while there.
Meanwhile, negotiations between the Turks and Bin Saud proceeded, and resulted
in a treaty signed by Bin Saud and the Yali of Basra on the 15th May, 1914
(236112/4650/16). The terms of this treaty may be summarised here :—
Article 1.—Signatories’ names ; secrecy ; validity.
Article 2.—The vilayet of Nejd to remain in charge of Abd-ul-Aziz Pasha An Ottoman title used after the names of certain provincial governors, high-ranking officials and military commanders. al-Saud
for life. His descendants to succeed by Imperial firman A Persian word meaning a royal order or decree issued by a sovereign, used notably in the Ottoman Empire (sometimes written ‘phirmaund’). , “ provided he remains loyal
to the Imperial Government.”
Article 3.—A “ technical military official ” (? euphemism for Turkish resident) to
be appointed by Bin Saud, to live wherever he (Bin Saud) wishes. Turkish military
instructors to be employed by Bin Saud at his discretion.
Article 4.—(Turkish) soldiers and gendarmerie to be posted, at Bin Saud’s
discretion, in sea ports.
Article 5.—Customs, taxes, ports, lighthouses, to be administered by Bin Saud
according to Ottoman regulations.
Article 6.—Deficiency of local revenues to be met out of customs, ports,
telegraphs and posts revenue. Any surplus in this imperial revenue, and 10 percent,
of any surplus in local revenues, to be remitted to Constantinople.
Article 7.—Turkish flag to be flown on buildings and shipping.
Article 8.—Correspondence regarding supply of arms to be conducted with Marine
Department at Constantinople.
Article 9.—“ The said Vali and Commandant (i.e., Bin Saud) is not allowed to
interfere with or correspond about foreign affairs and international treaties, or to grant
concessions to foreigners.”
Article 10.—Bin Saud to correspond direct with Ministries of Interior and Marine
at Constantinople.
Article 11.—Post offices to be established in vilayet of Neid. Stamps to be
Article 12.—In case of internal disturbance in Turkey, or war between Turkey
and a foreign Power, “ if the Government asks the said Vali for a force to co-operate
with its own forces, it is incumbent on the Vali to prepare a sufficient force with
provisions and ammunition, and to respond to the demand at once, according to his
power and ability.”
During the course of these negotiations between Bin Saud and Turkey, and, in
fact, during the whole period between the signing of the Anglo-Turkish Convention of
the 29th July, 1913, and the outbreak of war between Great Britain and Turkey on
the 31st October, 1914, His Majesty’s Government discouraged Bin Saud’s advances to
them, and did their utmost to comply with the spirit of the Convention.
During the interval between the beginning of the war in Europe and the inter
vention of Turkey, when the attitude of the Turkish Government was becoming more
and more hostile to the Allies, rumours reached His Majesty’s Government that Bin
Saud was preparing to throw in his lot with the Turks. The Turks did, in fact,
attempt to reconcile Bin Saud and Bin Rashid, and secure their military co-operation
on the Turkish side. But Bin Saud evaded these overtures (84042/46261/14 and
17000/1385/15 : No. 48). In October 1914 the Sheikh of Koweit wrote to him on his
own initiative, stating that he proposed to stand by His Majesty’s Government himself,
and that he advised him to do the same (59746/46261/14). And Bin Saud wrote back
that “ in the event of war with Turkey he would stand by the Sheikh and the British
Government” (63562/14).
The earlier rumours that Bin Saud was inclining towards the Turks, and the
importance, in the event of war with Turkey, of securing his friendship, had already
decided the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. to send Captain Shakespear, formerly British Resident at
Koweit, on a special mission to Bin Saud (59038/46261/14). On the 4th October, 1914,
the Resident in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. was instructed to inform Bin Saud of this intention
through the Sheikh of Koweit; and on the 8th October, 1914, instructions were sent to

About this item


The file contains correspondence, memoranda, maps, and other papers relating to Middle Eastern affairs and a few other miscellaneous matters. The majority of the file concerns discussions of and proposals for the post-war settlement of Near Eastern territories, including Turkey, Armenia, Georgia, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, and the Arabian Peninsula. The basis of these discussions was the Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916.

Other matters covered by the papers include events in Siam [Thailand] and Burmah [Myanmar] and the colonial rivalry in the region between France and Britain, the Baghdad Railway, and relations with Ibn Saud in Arabia, including a report on the 1917-18 mission to Najd by Harry St John Philby (folios 67-98).

Folios 99-110 are six maps with accompanying notes that show the various proposed territorial settlements and spheres of influence in the Near East and one showing Britain's global colonial possessions.

Memoranda and correspondence comes from officials at the Foreign Office and India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. . Other correspondents include French and Italian government officials.

Extent and format
1 file (110 folios)

The file is arranged in roughly chronological order, from the front to the back.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front of the envelope with 1, and terminates at the inside back last page with 110, these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the file also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English and French in Latin script
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Miscellaneous correspondence, reports, maps and other papers concerning the Middle East [‎14v] (29/220), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F112/276, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 29 November 2023]

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