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‘Report on the administration of the Persian Gulf Political Residency and Muskat Political Agency for the year 1879-80’ [‎298v] (27/161)

The record is made up of 1 volume (80 folios). It was created in 1880. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .

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1G administration report of the persian gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. political
and carrying power must be good indeed. In 1877 seventeen mules
from Fars were shipped to the Bombay Government for service in the
mountain batteries, and the Adjutant-General of the Army the follow
ing year writes:—
" The mules sent from Persia last year were of a good stamp and
have turned out well/'
Districts of Persia where the mule is em,ployed.^—W ules are exten
sively employed for carrying purposes throughout the south-western
and western parts of Persia. In all the eastern districts, Khorassan,
Yezd, Kerman, Seistan, and Persian Mekran, the carriage of the country
is almost altogether performed by camels, but in the south-western and
western districts, Fars, Behbehan, Isfahan, Arabistan, Khuzistan,
Luristan, Koordistan, Kirmanshah, Hamadan, Teheran, and Azerbaijan,
mules and donkeys replace the camel to a very large extent, and in some
places the mule almost monopolizes the carrying trade. For the rough,
stony roads, or rather tracts (for roads there are none), throughout these
districts the mule is admirably adapted, and the Persians are by no means
blind to his good qualities.
By whom bred. —The population of south-western Persia may be
divided into two distinct classes: the settled, Dehati or Dehnishiu,
dwellers in villages; and the nomad, Eeliyat or Chadrnishin, the dweller
in tents. It is by the latter that the mules are bred. A few are bred
here and there among tL j villagers, but their number is inconsiderable.
It sometimes happens also that some of the brood mares among the
Eeliyat herds belong to villagers who pay the Eeliyats for sending them
and breeding mules from them.
Breeding. —Mules are bred from mares. They say that a very few
are bred from the female donkey, but that they are small and inferior in
every respect. The method of breeding is as follows :—The mares from
which it is intended to breed are placed apart and carefully herded in
pastures by themselves. The number of mares in each herd varies, and
these mares generally belong to different owners, each man owning from
one to ten or more. Several donkey stallions of approved breed and size
are associated with each herd. These donkeys are carefully selected for
their breed, size, and shape, and are considered very valuable animals, and
are well looked after. They are taken from their mothers when quite
young, and are placed under someof the mares. Mares which have thrown
colts are chosen for this purpose, the colts being brought up by hand,
and the young donkeys substituted to the mothers. The reason for
choosing mares with colts is that fillies are much more prized among
the Persians, and great care is taken of them, while colts are but little
esteemed, and it is not considered of much consequence if they come
to grief. These donkeys growing up thus along with the mares are
accepted by them when of age. It sometimes happens that the number
of mares in a herd are more than can be attended to by the regular donkey
stallions of the herd, and in this case, when donkeys reared under mares
are not procurable, recourse must be had to other donkeys. Large, sound,
well-bred donkeys are then chosen, but it is necessary first to excite them
by means of a female donkey, and then to withdraw the female donkey
and substitute a mure.

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Content

Administration Report on the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Residency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. and Muskat [Muscat] Political Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. for 1879-80, published by Authority at the Foreign Department Press, India (Calcutta), and forming part of the Selections from the Records of the Government of India, Foreign Department (No. 171) and based on reports sent to Government by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. and the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Muscat. The report is preceded by a copy of a letter sent by Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Charles Ross, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , to A. C. Lyall, Secretary to the Government of India, dated 30 June 1880, which enclosed the submission of the original reports to the Government of India (folios 290-91).

The report is divided up into a number of sections and subsections, as follows:

1. General Report for 1879-80 , prepared by Ross (folios 291-308), which is divided a number of small reports, organised by region, as follows: 1. ’Omán or Muskat State; 2. Pirate Coast; 3. El-Bahrain; 4. Nejd, El-Hasá [Al-Hasa] and El-Katr [Qatar]; 5. Southern Persia; and 6. Bassidore [Bāsa‘īdū]. The reports detail the state of local affairs in each region, including relations between tribes and rulers, disease, incidents of piracy, migrations. The report for Southern Persia contains a separate report for Fars. The report for Bassidore includes reports on: political appointments; royal naval activity, postal affairs; observatory activity; and administration of the trade in mules in Persia. Four appendices follow the report: A. List of Guttur (or El-Katr) [Qatar] ports and names of chiefs and main tribes; B. Terms of a mutual agreement entered into by the Trucial Chiefs of the Oman Coast through the medium of Hajee Abul Kassim, Moonshee, specially deputed on this service, and Hajee Abdur Rahman, Government Agent, Arab coast, dated 24 June 1879; C. tabulated meteorological data from the Bushire Residency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. Observatory; D. Notes upon the breeding, treatment, etc., of the Persian mule, and upon Persia as a source of supply for mules, written by Lieutenant I MacIvor, Assistant Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. .

2. A Memoir on Nejd , prepared by Ross (folios 308-21), comprising an outline history of the Wahábees [ Wahhābī A follower of the Islamic reform movement known as Wahhabism; also used to refer to the people and territories ruled by the Al-Saud family. ] of Nejd and the Ál-Su’ood [Āl Sa‘ūd] Amirs, from 1691 to the present day, and a number of appendices: A. Genealogical of the Āl Sa‘ūd; B. List of principal districts and towns of Nejd; C. Tribes of Nejd; D. List of authorities and sources of information availed of in preparing Memoir of Nejd .

3. Report on trade for 1879, prepared by Ross, dated 26 May 1880 (folios 321-56), comprising a summary of the year’s harvest and trade; the Commercial Treaty; customs duty; assistance to vessels in distress; prohibition export of specie exceptions; notice of prohibition of export of produce; mercantile tribunals; protection of British subjects; introduction of industrial machinery and agricultural implements. Three appendices follow: A. Report on the salt caves and mines and the trade in salt in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , written by the Assistant Surgeon, Abder Raheem, Bassidore, 20 March 1880; B. Tabulated list of productions [summer and winter agricultural planting) of Fars; C. Tabulated trade statistics, indicating the quantity and values of imports and exports in the region, lists of goods traded, and nationality and tonnage of trading vessels.

4. Administration report of the Political Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. , Muskat, for the year 1879-80 , prepared by Major Charles Grant, His Britannic Majesty’s Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. and Consul, Muscat (folios 357-65), comprising: an overview of the political situation in Muscat, changes in British personnel at the Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. ; the slave trade; marine events; and trade. An appendix of tabulated trade statistics follows the report, detailing nationality and tonnage of vessels visiting Muscat, and lists of imports and exports.

Extent and format
1 volume (80 folios)
Arrangement

The report is arranged into a number of parts and sections, with tabulated statistical data directly following written sections. There is a contents page at the front of the report (folios 288-89), which refers to the report’s internal pagination sequence.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: There is a foliation sequence, which is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio, on number 285 and ends on the last folio, on number 364.

Pagination: The volume contains an original typed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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‘Report on the administration of the Persian Gulf Political Residency and Muskat Political Agency for the year 1879-80’ [‎298v] (27/161), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/V/23/37, No 171, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023580190.0x00001d> [accessed 12 April 2024]

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