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‘Report on the administration of the Persian Gulf Political Residency and Muskat Political Agency for the year 1879-80’ [‎300r] (30/161)

The record is made up of 1 volume (80 folios). It was created in 1880. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. and musk at political agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. for 1879-80. 19
The usual load for a good healthy mule is 320 IBs. This is
in addition to his saddle, tkc., so that he really carries 380 H ds . The
load is divided into two parts as equally as possible and fastened high up
on each side of the saddle with cameFs hair ropes, the kaf- koolabah or
surcingle being passed over all.
The march. —The length of march made by caravans of mules, de-
endino- as it. generally does upon the distance between places where
the water, provisions, or protection is procurable, varies greatly through
out Persia, as much as from three farsangs or farsakhs (one farsakh = 3i
to 4 miles}, up to sixteen or even more farsakhs. The average length of
march is about five farsakhs. The halting places, as well as the distances
between them, are called manzils or stages, and mules are invariably
taken the whole stage, however long it may be, in one march. No halts
of any duration are made, but about every hour or farsakh, the leading
pboo and all the mules stop of themselves for four or five minutes to
stale, and then move on again.
In the hot weather mules march about 6 or 7 o'clock p.m ., arriving
at the end of their stage about 3 or 4> o^cloek a.m . In the^ cold weather
they march about 3 o'clock a.m . and arrive about 9 or 10 o'clock a.m.
Shoeing. —Mules are shod about five times during the year; that
is, about once every ten weeks. Each shoeing costs one kran (a
little less than eight annas). The shoe universally used is a rather thin
broad piece of iron which covers the greater part of the hoof, thus pro
tecting the sole from injury by stones, &c. It is fastened on by either
four or six very largc-liGadGd nails^ two or threG on Gach. sicIg o £ tliG foot.
The same kind of shoe is used for horses in Persia, and being small, the
toe and outside crust of the hoof is well cut and rasped away to make
the hoof fit the shoe, which latter, according to our ideas, would be much
too small for the foot. This method of shoeing appears as it it would
produce a tendency to contracted feet, but on the rough stony roads ot
Persia it seems to answer its purpose very well.
Epidemic diseases.— epidemic diseases which attack mules are
two in number, " Ranf or " Koft" and " Mashmashi." These are both
considered very contagious, and animals attacked are immedia e y sepaia-
ted from the healthy ones and kept apart. " Ranj is fata, an no
remedy is known or attempted. The immediate symptoms are inm mg
of the stomach and whiteness of the gums and eyes. ^ 01 ^ vc
after attack the mule passes red urine, and its dung is quite re . . an]
is said to occur at intervals of five or six years. It breaks ou m e ^
weather, and is very destructive, carrying off, I am told, as umc as e
per cent, of the mules in a herd or caravan it attacks. _ Amma s a ac e
are placed apart, and die in the cold weather, or (it is sai ) ^ en
first drink rain water. Muleteers profess to carefully feed an en any
mules attacked in reward for their previous services, but am mc in
to doubt the good treatment, humaneness not being one o e vir
inherent in the Persian character.
"Mashmashi" or glanders is also fatal, animals affected with it no
being known to recover. The symptoms are profuse an mi i
charge of yellow matter from the nose, enlargement o e ^ a b
the jaw and surrounding the wind-pipe, and refusa o ee .

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Content

Administration Report on the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. and Muskat [Muscat] Political Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. for 1879-80, published by Authority at the Foreign Department Press, India (Calcutta), and forming part of the Selections from the Records of the Government of India, Foreign Department (No. 171) and based on reports sent to Government by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. and the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Muscat. The report is preceded by a copy of a letter sent by Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Charles Ross, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , to A. C. Lyall, Secretary to the Government of India, dated 30 June 1880, which enclosed the submission of the original reports to the Government of India (folios 290-91).

The report is divided up into a number of sections and subsections, as follows:

1. General Report for 1879-80 , prepared by Ross (folios 291-308), which is divided a number of small reports, organised by region, as follows: 1. ’Omán or Muskat State; 2. Pirate Coast; 3. El-Bahrain; 4. Nejd, El-Hasá [Al-Hasa] and El-Katr [Qatar]; 5. Southern Persia; and 6. Bassidore [Bāsa‘īdū]. The reports detail the state of local affairs in each region, including relations between tribes and rulers, disease, incidents of piracy, migrations. The report for Southern Persia contains a separate report for Fars. The report for Bassidore includes reports on: political appointments; royal naval activity, postal affairs; observatory activity; and administration of the trade in mules in Persia. Four appendices follow the report: A. List of Guttur (or El-Katr) [Qatar] ports and names of chiefs and main tribes; B. Terms of a mutual agreement entered into by the Trucial Chiefs of the Oman Coast through the medium of Hajee Abul Kassim, Moonshee, specially deputed on this service, and Hajee Abdur Rahman, Government Agent, Arab coast, dated 24 June 1879; C. tabulated meteorological data from the Bushire Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. Observatory; D. Notes upon the breeding, treatment, etc., of the Persian mule, and upon Persia as a source of supply for mules, written by Lieutenant I MacIvor, Assistant Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. .

2. A Memoir on Nejd , prepared by Ross (folios 308-21), comprising an outline history of the Wahábees [Wahhābī] of Nejd and the Ál-Su’ood [Āl Sa‘ūd] Amirs, from 1691 to the present day, and a number of appendices: A. Genealogical of the Āl Sa‘ūd; B. List of principal districts and towns of Nejd; C. Tribes of Nejd; D. List of authorities and sources of information availed of in preparing Memoir of Nejd .

3. Report on trade for 1879, prepared by Ross, dated 26 May 1880 (folios 321-56), comprising a summary of the year’s harvest and trade; the Commercial Treaty; customs duty; assistance to vessels in distress; prohibition export of specie exceptions; notice of prohibition of export of produce; mercantile tribunals; protection of British subjects; introduction of industrial machinery and agricultural implements. Three appendices follow: A. Report on the salt caves and mines and the trade in salt in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , written by the Assistant Surgeon, Abder Raheem, Bassidore, 20 March 1880; B. Tabulated list of productions [summer and winter agricultural planting) of Fars; C. Tabulated trade statistics, indicating the quantity and values of imports and exports in the region, lists of goods traded, and nationality and tonnage of trading vessels.

4. Administration report of the Political Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. , Muskat, for the year 1879-80 , prepared by Major Charles Grant, His Britannic Majesty’s Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. and Consul, Muscat (folios 357-65), comprising: an overview of the political situation in Muscat, changes in British personnel at the Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. ; the slave trade; marine events; and trade. An appendix of tabulated trade statistics follows the report, detailing nationality and tonnage of vessels visiting Muscat, and lists of imports and exports.

Extent and format
1 volume (80 folios)
Arrangement

The report is arranged into a number of parts and sections, with tabulated statistical data directly following written sections. There is a contents page at the front of the report (folios 288-89), which refers to the report’s internal pagination sequence.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: There is a foliation sequence, which is circled in pencil, in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. of each folio. It begins on the first folio, on number 285 and ends on the last folio, on number 364.

Pagination: The volume contains an original typed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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‘Report on the administration of the Persian Gulf Political Residency and Muskat Political Agency for the year 1879-80’ [‎300r] (30/161), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/V/23/37, No 171, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023580190.0x000020> [accessed 5 April 2020]

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