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‘Administration Report on the Persian Gulf Political Residency and Maskat Political Agency for 1899/1900’ [‎283r] (39/150)

The record is made up of 1 volume (60 folios). It was created in 1900. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .

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RESIDENCY An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. AND MASKAT POLITICAL AGENCY An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. FOE THE YEAE 1899-1900.
31
that medicines and disinfectants could be obtained from ns on application, Amonj, other
measnres I also advised a oarcfnl registration of attacks and deaths for the nnrpose of ascertain,
the progress ot the epidemic. 1 ^ c ux a^nndiu-
The well-recognised and generally accepted principle that cholera toll,
General remarks on the epidemic in Oman. 0 '' commerce
illustration
ows the highways
has received a further and forcible
, -n • « ^ ^ in the manner in which it snread
A fTv% S T after 016 disease bad an epidemic form in
Matrah, and in fact before it had spread generally all over the place, it broke out on or about
the 4th October with great suddenness and v.olenee at which lies on the highway to
the Shark'yeh or the Eastern D, strict of Oman and Oman Proper, having been conveyed
thither by a caravan returning from Matrah. The suddenness of the invasion and the
a arming rate ot mortality there caused the people to be almost panic-stricken and to flee in
all directions, the infection thus spreading to the neighbouring villages and hamlets and
eventually to the town or oiraail itself.
The Wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. Beni Ruwaheh being a continuation of the Wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. Simail was directly infested
from the latter place, the course of the advance of the epidemic being still in the westerly
direction. *rom buroor the disease also advanced in a northerly direction to al-Khode where
the first case occurred about the 17th of October, and which then became the centre for the
diffusion of the disease to Nakhl on the one hand and to the Batinch Coast on the other.
When the disease reached Nakhl firsts the outbreak being mere of the type of cholerine than
true cholera, was attended with hardly any mortality, but the second or subsequent outbreak,
which occuned about 2U days after the first one, was one of a very severe nature causing 450
deaths and giving the high ratio of 15 per cent, of deaths to population. A remarkable
circumstance in connexion with its advance to Nakhl is the fact of its having followed the
course of greatest communication, namely, through al-Khode instead of taking the shortest
course from Simail over the hills which are a ramification or the Green Mountains.
From Nakhl the epidemic advanced in succession to Wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. Muawal, al-Awabi, and
ar -Rustak and from al-Khode it spread first to as-Seeb and thence to the whole of the Batineh
Coast in a north-westerly direction, the last place to be infected there being Sohar. It
spread from the Wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. Beni Ruwaheh in a westerly direction to Oman Proper and also to the
Sharkiyeh in which, however, Samad, Rawdeh and other places close to the Simail Wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. were
previously infected through the disease advancing direct from Suroor. It may here be noted
that the hamlets in the Akk pass through which the caravans passed on their way from Suroor
to the Sharkiyeh enjoyed absolute immunity throughout the whole coarse of the epidemic.
The disease appears to have spread to Wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. Hatat from Matrah through the village of Rui
whilst to Teiwee and Kalhat on the south-eastern coast from Maskat.
The total number of deaths due to cholera in Oman, as far as I have been able to ascer-
Mortality in Oman. 'f'" and i a ' T ""y r , b T e 6ee " I'T ^ accom P'> I1 3'.' | "f
statement No. vll, which has been compiled
partly from information kindly supplied by His Highness the Sultan of Maskat, but prin
cipally from information through other channels, may be approximately stated to be 13,231. I
regret to have to state that the statement is incomplete in some respects, but I submit it
as it is with the hope of its being able to give a fair idea of the extent and severity of
the epidemic in the interior. This enormous mortality was due in a great measure to the
intensity ot the epidemic in many of the places it visited in its course, and the determining
cause of that intensity is easily found in the general practice which obtains in the interior,
of washing the dead quite close to the aqueducts. It must be remembered that with the
exception of some of the places in the Sharkiyeh which contain wells as an additional
source of water-supply, the principal means of irrigation are aqueducts fed by springs, all
the supply of water for domestic purposes being also obtained from them. When a dead
body is removed to one of these aqueducts for washing, a breach is made in the masonry of
the aqueduct quite close to the place where the body is, and the water allowed to run over it,
some of which evidently runs by the side of the aqueduct and eventually pollutes it Cholera
germs in abundance had thus an easy access to the water supply of most of the places
and gave rise to those sudden and violent explosions which in places like the Simail
valley and Teiwee resulted in such alarming rates of mortality. This assumption is strongly
supported by the fact that on the .Batineh Coast and at Maskat and Matrah where the supply
of water for domestic purposes is drawn entirely from wells and where the dead are washed
in houses, far away from the sources of water-supply, the rates of mortality were proportion
ately much less, that for the former or Batineh Coast being in the ratio of r4 per cent, and
for the latter or Maskat and Matrah together 2*9 per cent.
It may thus be seen that the recent epidemic of cholera with its heavy mortality follow
ing as it did an unusually severe epidemic of small-pox, which alone carried away over 6,000
souls, has had a highly deleterious effect on the health of the Province, which, it is much
to be regretted, is likely to suffer still further from an early visitation of plague should the
epidemic, which is now raging in Maskat and Matrab, extend to the interior.
Maskat ; ") A. S. G. JAYAKAR, Jieut.~Col., I- M. S.,
The 1st April 1900. I Civil Sur 9 e()n > Maskat
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Administration Report on the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Residency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. and Muskat [Muscat] Political Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. for 1899-1900, published by the Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India (Calcutta), forming part of the Selections from the Records of the Government of India, Foreign Department, and based on reports sent to Government by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. and the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Muscat.

The report is divided up into a number of sections and subsections, as follows:

Part 1, is a General Summary (folios 268-71) written by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , Lieutenant-Colonel Malcolm John Meade:

  • Section 1: entitled General , includes: a report on the year’s rainfall and harvest; the Governorship of Bushire; public peace and tranquillity in and around Bushire; public health and measures to restrict cholera and the plague in the Gulf; Persian currency; customs house arrangements in Bushire; compensation claims; and the Resident’s tours through the region during the year;
  • 2: Oman – Muscat: including: a change in personnel, with the role of Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. being taken over by Captain Percy Zachariah Cox from Major Christopher George Forbes Fagan; the Sultan of Muscat’s finances; French proposals to construct a coal depot in Muscat; use of the French flag by Muscat vessels; association of the French flag with the arms and slave trades; the impact of cholera and plague in the region;
  • 3. Oman – Pirate coast, including: a list of the those shaikhs in the region who have met with the Resident in the past year; Arab-Persian relations over Lingah [Bandar-e Lengeh], and the expulsion of Persians from that port; the discovery of a large pearl at Kumzār and its subsequent sale for a lower-than-expected price; the prevalence of smallpox on the Arab coast;
  • 4. Bahrain, including: the wounding of two British-Indian subjects; difficulties discharging cargoes in Bahrain; and the death of Aga Muhummad Rahim, the Native News Agent in Bahrain;
  • 5. El-Nejd, with no report due to the recommendation that no one be deputed to travel there;
  • 6. Koweit [Kuwait]: no particulars reported;
  • 7. Persian Arabistan: the navigation of the Kārūn river, and opening up of river and land routes for trade;
  • 8. Fars and Persian coast: Bandar-e Lengeh in Persian hands; the arrival of the British Vice-Consul for Bunder Abbas [Bandar-e ʻAbbās];
  • 9. Persian Baluchistan: delays in compensation claims against the murder of Mowladad Khan; a change in the Directorship of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Telegraphs Department; rumours of a revolt against the Shah in Persian Baluchistan;
  • 10. Slave Trade: numbers of slave captured and manumitted during the year;
  • 11. Piracy: cases of piracy reported during the year, with details of where and against whom they were committed;
  • 12. Navy: details of the movements of British naval vessels (Sphinx, Lapwing and Pigeon) and significant foreign vessels, including Russian warship Gilyak;
  • 13. Official Changes: changes in British personnel;
  • 14. Changes among foreign representatives, with particular reference to German, French and Dutch representatives.

An appendix to part 1 (folios 272-75) includes statistical tables comprising meteorological data for the region; dispensaries in Bushire and data for the numbers of patients, diseases, surgical operations and income and expenditure of the Residency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. dispensary.

Part 2 (folios 276-78) is a separate report from the Muscat Political Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. , written by Cox, with reports on events in Muscat, Rostak [Rustāq], Sohar, Soor [Sur], and Dhofar [Z̧ufār], including: accidental shootings by Wahabee [ Wahhābī A follower of the Islamic reform movement known as Wahhabism; also used to refer to the people and territories ruled by the Al-Saud family. ] tribesmen; the appearance in Muscat of cholera and the plague; British and foreign naval movements in Muscat; and a statistical overview of manumission applications heard at the agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. .

Appendix A to Part 2 (folios 278v-85) is a detailed report with statistical data on the cholera epidemic in Muscat and Oman, written by the Lieutenant-Colonel Atmaram Sadashiv Jayakar, Chief Surgeon at Muscat. Jayakar’s report contains historical data on outbreaks of cholera in Muscat, symptoms of the disease, mortality statistics, treatment and its results, preventative and sanitation measures. Civil hospital and dispensary statistics follow on folios 285v-287v.

Part 3 (folios 288) is a trade report of the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. for 1899, written by Meade. Its appendices (folios 289-328) comprise tables showing the value of all goods imported and exported to and from various parts of the Gulf region, and the numbers of vessels (with figures on tonnage) of various nationalities plying their trade in the region in each port.

Part 4 (folios 329-30) is a separate trade report with statistical data for Muscat for 1899-1900.

Part 5 (folios 331-35) is a trade report for Mohammerah [Khorramshahr] and the Kārūn river for the year 1899.

Extent and format
1 volume (60 folios)
Arrangement

The report is arranged into a number of sections and subsections, with statistic data in tabular format directly following written sections. There is a contents page at the front of the report (f. 267) which lists the report’s contents in alphabetically ascending order, and refers to the report’s own pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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‘Administration Report on the Persian Gulf Political Residency and Maskat Political Agency for 1899/1900’ [‎283r] (39/150), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/V/23/77, No 379, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100023626792.0x000029> [accessed 12 April 2024]

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