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'ROUTES IN PERSIA. SECTION III' [‎94r] (192/739)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (367 folios). It was created in 1898. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.


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No. Ift—confd.
Isfahan to Gulpaigan.
Names of stages.
D istancks
in miles.
8 Gulpaigan
'Thxeefarsahhs from Kukh, in the highest part
of the pass, is a ruined fort with a little spring
with reservoir. Iliat flocks in the neighbour
hood. The pass called Girandar Hasan Falak
here leads into the Seneh Alwand valley, where
Kurai is situated. The road leading from
Gulpaigan over the pass, unites with the road
above described, just before reaching Kumi,
which is § farsakhs from Kokah.
Five and-a-half farsalchs west. Valley wide and
apparently destitute of villages, but flocks of
sheep are met with. The little town occupies
one of the higher undulations of the valley. Its
mud-built houses rise above each other, and there
are some two-storied brick buildings on a rocky
bluff at the eastern end. A few shops. Popula
tion about 2,000. Water from Jcanats, collected
in a reservoir half a mile from the village.
V mere track leads in 10 miles to two or three villages;
it then enters a mass of confused low hills, the
undulations becoming very steep and rocky as it
nears Khonsa. In front rises the high barren
chain of El Ahwaz, Behind and to the north
ward the ranges are low and of the usual sterile,
monotonous kind. Tin and copper are found
amongst these hills. The valley is barren and
dreary enough; but from a rising piece of
ground, Gulpaigan and its neighbourhood can be
seen 10 miles to the northward. The undula
tions get steeper, and the rough way leads at times
over the bare rock ; in places clear little streams
issue from the soil and herbs and flowers spring
up. The sudden change from this barrenness to
exuberant fertility is most rerrarkable, for
Khonsa and its superb valley, overflowing with
rich foliage and cultivation, lies at the traveller's
feet on emerging from the rocky way. This
beautiful valley, extending^ north and south for
6 or 7 miles, is often very narrow, and in some
parts merely a gorge ; a chain of hills rises almost
at once from the cultivation on the western side,
and inconsiderable hills running into each other,
without the slightest semblance of vegetation,
from the boundary to the eastward. A break
neck path leads to a large and neglected burial-
ground, and into Khonsa through a dirty and
poor-looking bazaar. Cf. Route No. 80, stage 5.
Road leads at first by gardens and orchards irri
gated by the line stream from Khonsa, that is on

About this item


The volume is a Government of India official publication entitled Routes in Persia. Section III. Compiled in the Intelligence Branch of the Quarter Master General's Department in India (Simla: printed at the Government Central Printing Office, 1898).

The volume contains details of all land routes (numbered 1-247) in Persia starting from Russian territory and extending south as far as a line drawn from Karmanshah [Kermānshāh] south-eastwards through Burujird [Borūjerd], Isfahan [Eşfahān] and Yazd to Karman [Kermān], and thence north-east to Khabis [Khabīş] and Neh to Lash Juwain [Lāsh-e Juwayn].

The information given for each route comprises:

  • number of route;
  • place names forming starting point and destination of route;
  • authority and date;
  • number of stage;
  • names of stages;
  • distance in miles (intermediate and total);
  • remarks (including precise details of the route, general geographical information, and information on smaller settlements, local peoples, agriculture, condition of roads, access to water, supplies of wood, and other routes).

An appendix within the volume (folios 356-359) and two separately-stored sets of loose sheets (containing routes numbers 77 (a) and 140-A, folios 363-369) give information too late for incorporation in the body of the work.

The volume also contains pockets attached to the front and back inside covers for maps. These consist of an index map showing the limits of each of the three sections of Routes in Persia (folio 2) and an index map to the routes in Section III (folio 361). There is also a fold-out map of the route from Seistan [Sīstān] to Mashad on folio 232.

An ink stamp on the front cover records the confidential nature of the publication and that it was being transmitted for the information of His Excellency the Viceroy (Victor Alexander Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin and 16th Earl of Kincardine) only.

Extent and format
1 volume (367 folios)

The volume contains an alphabetical cross index (folios 6-17), and an alphabetical index to names of places (folios 18-25).

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the front cover and terminates on the last page of the loose supplementary sheets (found in the small grey folder within the main folder); these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Pagination: the volume also contains a printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'ROUTES IN PERSIA. SECTION III' [‎94r] (192/739), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F111/371, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 22 August 2019]

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