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'Government of Bahrain Annual Report for Year 1356 (March 1937 - February 1938)' [‎60r] (33/76)

The record is made up of 1 volume (37 folios). It was created in 1938. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .

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19
The Small Court was given authority to deal with 1 fasl' and 1 Arba * diving
claims, but not other diving cases.
shera Courts. The work of both Sunni and Shia Shera Courts has been
unsatisfactory during the year.
The Shia Qadis owing to dissentions among themselves have rarely given
unanimous verdicts in important cases. Most of their judgments have been
obviously swayed by personal prejudices. In certain estate cases they have
admittedly received large sums of money to w T hich, according to public opinion, they
are not entitled. Their prestige and reputation is are lower even than that of any
previous Qadis.
The Sunni Qadis have a better reputation but are arousing general complaint
by their apparent incapability of dispatching cases with reasonable rapidity. Simple
cases are held up by them for months and in important cases they take years to
come to a decision.
The standard of education and legal knowledge of the Ulema of Bahrain,
both Sunni and Shia, from whom the Qadis are appointed, is extremely low. Very
few young men from Bahrain go abroad to study Islamic law, they are content to
learn from the local 'Alims' and the result is a case of the blind leading the blind.
Code of Laws. Scarcely any progress was made during the year by the
committee which was appointed to draw up a draft code of laws for the Bahrain
Courts. Members of the committee were away from Bahrain and the court clerk
was on leave. Both magistrates and the public are anxious that some sort of code
should be produced especially in order to check the anomalies which occur in
judgments in different Bahrain Courts and the differences between Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. court
judgments and Bahrain Court judgments.
New Law Courts. All the courts now have their rooms and offices in the new
building which is a great convenience both to the public and to the magistrates and
officials. Cases can be passed from court to court with no delay and it is possible for
Wakils Elected representative or attorney, acting in legal matters such as contracting marriage, inheritance, or business; a high-ranking legal official; could also refer to a custodian or administrator. to appear in more than one court on the same day which was previously
very difficult. The new courts provide accommodation for litigants who are waiting
to be heard and the court rooms are more comfortable and better ventilated than the
various rooms which were used before.
Although the progress of judicial administration in Bahrain is apparently
running smoothly there is a definite tendency to criticise the courts on the part of
the modern type of educated Arabs who are now the people who are most anxious
to make or to adopt a regular code. One of the most frequent criticisms of
judicial administration is that with few exceptions all the magistrates are quite young
men with no great experience. The magistrates are mostly the sons and nephews
of the Ruler. Unfortunately the older members of the Ruling Family, though
perhaps more experienced in a general way, are for the most part unqualified lor
such duties.
Municipalities.
Manama Municipality.
Annual Revenue 1356
Expenditure „
Balance in hand
Rs. 92,130.
96,624.
30,338.

About this item

Content

This volume is the Annual Report of the Government of Bahrain for the year 1356 AH (1937-1938) and gives details of the Revenue and Expenditure of the Bahrain State and contains notes on the activities of the various Government departments, as well as the budget for the year 1357 and some particulars of importance which took place in Bahrain during the year. It includes text, photographic images and tables. The report appears to be compiled from reports from various Government departments and officials. An index appears on folio 46r, followed by a General Review by Charles Dalrymple Belgrave, Adviser to the State of Bahrain (folio 47r).

The contents are divided into the following sections and sub-sections:

  • Budget – 1356 (folio 47v);
  • Summary of Revenue and Expenditure, 1356 (folio 48r);
  • Detailed statement of Revenue and Expenditure, 1356 (folio 48v);
  • Statement of Expenditure on Public Works and Special Projects (folio 49r);
  • Notes on Revenue – 1356 (folio 49v): Oil Royalty, Customs Receipts, Rent of Aerodrome, Passport Fees, Land Registration Fees, Motor Car Taxes, Rent of Government Lands, Interest on Reserves, and Oil Gauging Fees;
  • Notes on Expenditure – 1356 (folios 49v-50v): Allowances to the Ruling Family, State Protection, Customs Department, Secretariat, Judicial Department, Land and Public Works Department, Passport Department, Education Department, Municipalities, Medical, Contingencies, Upkeep of buildings, Upkeep and construction of roads, and Unforeseen;
  • Statement of Expenditure on Public Works and Special Projects (folio 50v): Hospital, Fire Engine, New Palace, Law Courts, Agriculture, Water Cart, and Manama-Muharraq Bridge;
  • Pearl Industry (folios 51)
  • Police and Public Security (folios 51v-53r): Strength, Routine and duties, Police Buildings, Recruitment, Health, Police Families' Clinic, Police Band and Fire Bridgade, Registration of Arms and Ammunition, Mounted Section, Good Conduct Pay, Crime, Traffic Control, Liquor, and Persian Immigration;
  • Public Health (folio 53): Muharraq Dispensary, Suk al Khamis [Sūq al-Khamīs] Dispensary, Hedd [al-Ḥidd] Dispensary, Women's Clinic, Anti-Malaria Measures, and Government Hospital;
  • Land Registration Department (folio 53v): Registration of Sales, Gifts, and Titles, Revenue from Sales etc., and Programme for 1357;
  • Public Works (folios 54-57v): Administration, Roads and Buildings, Law Courts, Work-shop and Garages, Rest House and Police Station, Manama Fort, Manama Muharraq Road, Hawar Fort and Pier, Government Hospital, Muharraq Girls' School, Manama Market Buildings, and Roads;
  • Judicial Department (folios 57v-60r): Bahrain Court, Transfer of Magistrates, Bahrain Lower Court, New Regulations, Shera Court, Code of Laws, and New Law Courts;
  • Municipalities (folios 60r-61v): Manama (Election, Municipal Achievements, Road Improvements, Water Control, Bazaar Improvements, Anti-Malaria Measures, Slaughter House, Adari Spring [‘Ayn ‘Adhārī], and Pier) and Muharraq (Sea Reclamation, Roads, and Anti-Malaria Measures);
  • Wakf [Waqf] Department (folios 61v-62r);
  • Education (folio 62r): Progress, Technical School, Athletics, Students Abroad, and Girls' Schools;
  • General (folios 62v-65r): Annual Audit, New Staff, His Highness' Pilgrimage [hajj], Visit of His Royal Highness Amir Saoud [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd, Ibn Saud], Cinema, Juma Mosque, Nationality Law, Bus Service, Broadcasting, Press Propaganda, Government Rest House, and Private Building Enterprise;
  • Electric Supply Department, report by Mr W B Steele, State Engineer (folios 65r-69r): Wiring Contracts, Temporary Wiring, Main Extension, Alterations to Mains, New Generating Set, Financial Position, Telephone Department, Transport Department, Fire Department, Traffic Section, Municipal Ice Plant, School Engineering Workshop, and General;
  • Electric Returns: Profit and Loss Account, Revenue Account, Balance Sheet (folios 69v-70v);
  • Statement of Energy generated and sold, etc. (folio 71r);
  • Customs Department, report for the year 1356 by the Director of Customs Mr C C L de Grenier (folios 71v-76r);
  • Zubara Dispute (folio 76r);
  • Budget – 1357 (Feby. 1938-Feby. 1939) (folio 77);
  • Notes on Budget – 1357 (folios 78-80).

Illustrations appear on four folios and they are labelled as follows:

  • Folio 56: 'Hawar Fort' and 'Hawar Pier';
  • Folio 59: 'Law Courts. North Aspect' and 'Law Courts. South Aspects';
  • Folio 64: 'Muharraq Girl’s School' and 'Northern Village and Bay, Hawar';
  • Folio 68: 'Law Courts, open courtyard and platform' and 'Open Courtyard in the Law Courts'.

An inscription on the front cover reads 'Printed at the Times Press, Basrah' (folio 44r).

Extent and format
1 volume (37 folios)
Arrangement

There is an index (folio 46r) which references pages in the report.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: Folios 44-81.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'Government of Bahrain Annual Report for Year 1356 (March 1937 - February 1938)' [‎60r] (33/76), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/750/2, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100024140826.0x000078> [accessed 24 April 2024]

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