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File 1247/1912 Pt 1 'Turkey:- Communication to Turkish Govt of agreement between Gt. Britain and Koweit, Bahrein & Trucial Chiefs. Decorations for Sheiks of Koweit, Mohammerah & Bahrein in connection with Anglo-Turkish Convention.' [‎201v] (322/336)

The record is made up of 123 folios. It was created in 19 Oct 1896-24 Sep 1913. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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by the Sheikh and myself, accompany this letter, to he ratified, if approved,
hy His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, and it will be
seen that, in addition to the clause providing against cession, sale, lease, mort
gage, &c., of his territory, the Sheikh has bound himself not to receive represent
atives from other Powers. This condition appeared to me very desirable, as
Mubarak had told Mr. Gaskin that he had received overtures from the Erench,
and I trust that it will be approved by the Government of India.
9. At our interview Sheikh Mubarak, while expressing his great satisfac
tion at the prospect of an understanding between himself and the British, for
whom he declared that he has the utmost regard, said that, before he signed an
agreement, which might get him into trouble with the Turkish authorities, I
ought to give him in writing a declaration of the intentions of t ne British Govern
ment towards himself. He asked for a definite promise of protection and assist
ance,^ especially in regard to the property belonging to his family situated in
Turkish territory, and he declared that this assurance should form part of the
document which he was asked to sign. I informed him that the draft agreement
I had prepared was similar to those executed by other Chiefs, and that I was not
empowered to enter on it stipulations binding the British Government. Subse
quently, in view of the importance of the early conclusion of the negotiation
with the Sheikh, I agreed to give him a letter, a translation of which accom
panies, and I told him that my instructions did not admit of my promising any
thing more than is in it. As he still pressed for a guarantee being given that
the British Government would guard the family property in Turkish territory,
I informed him that I must leave Koweit, and ask for fresh instructions if he
did not see his way to sign the agreement as it stood, and accept the general
assurance of our good offices contained in my letter.
10. The Sheikh then, without further discussion, decided to sign the
agreement, and did so. I followed his example, and my signature was duly
attested by Captain Hore, I.M.S., Residency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. Surgeon, and Mr. Gaskin, who
had accompanied me. After he had signed the Sheikh said he would like to
call in his brother, Sheikh Hamud, show him the agreement, and get him to
attest his signature. He evidently expected that his brother would do this
without raising any difficulties : but when the agreement and my letter were
read over and explained, Shaikh Hamud refused to sign the former document,
and declared that it was necessary that the British Government should engage
to protect the family in their Turkish property before he would be a party to
an engagement which might bring them into conflict with the Turks. A
discussion, which lasted the rest of the day, failed to alter this resolve, and the
Sheikh’s other brother, Sheikh Jabir-bin-Subah, took the same line, and refused
to put his name on the agreement.
11. It was not possible to carry out such an important negotiation
without the knowledge of the Sheikh’s brothers, who had known all along of
his overtures to us, and, as they are co-sharers in the family property, it was
desirable to have their assent. As this, however, could not be obtained, Sheikh
Mubarak’s signature was eventually attested by Agha Muhammad Rahim,
our agent at Bahrein, who is his personal friend, and whom I had taken with
me to facilitate the negotiation with him.
12. The agreement concluded with Sheikh Mubarak should be binding
on him and future Sheikhs of Koweit, and he assured me that the concurrence
of his brothers is not necessary to make it so. It should facilitate the declara
tion of an open Protectorate later on, if Her Majesty’s Government decide
to declare it, for it is, as far as I can ascertain, the first and only engagement
ever executed between a Sheikh of Koweit and the Government of any
country. It ought, therefore, to stand in the way of attempts by other Powers,
or their subjects, to obtain a foothold in this important place.
13. While, however, a decided advantage has been obtained by the con
clusion of this agreement, it must be borne in mind that the fact that the Koweit
family possess considerable estates in Turkish territory complicates relations

About this item


The correspondence relates to the Anglo-Turkish Convention and assistance provided by the Shaikhs of Koweit [Kuwait] and Mahommerah [Khorramshahr] in the negotiation process, which results in the decision to bestow the award of KCSI (Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India) on both Shaikhs.

Also discussed are:

  • the negotiations between the Ottoman Government and the Bagdad Railway Company;
  • a request by the Turkish Government for copies of agreements and conventions made by the British Government with Koweit, Bahrein [Bahrain] and the Trucial Chiefs;
  • the decision to also bestow honours of a CSI (Companion of the Order of the Star of India) on Shaikh of Bahrein and CIE (Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire) on Haji Rais, trusted confident and adviser to the Shaikh of Mahommerah.

The principal correspondents include the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey), the Secretary of State for India (Viscount Morley of Blackburn, Lord George F Hamilton, and Lord Crewe), the Viceroy of India (Lord Curzon, Earl of Minto), the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. (Percy Zachariah Cox), the Foreign Secretary to the Government of India (Arthur Henry McMahon), and representatives of the Foreign Office.

Extent and format
123 folios
Physical characteristics

Foliation: The foliation sequence for this description commences at f 86, and terminates at f 208, as part of a larger physical volume; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

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File 1247/1912 Pt 1 'Turkey:- Communication to Turkish Govt of agreement between Gt. Britain and Koweit, Bahrein & Trucial Chiefs. Decorations for Sheiks of Koweit, Mohammerah & Bahrein in connection with Anglo-Turkish Convention.' [‎201v] (322/336), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/262/1, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 23 June 2024]

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