Skip to item: of 508
Information about this record Back to top
Open in Universal viewer
Open in Mirador IIIF viewer

'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎187v] (374/508)

This item is part of

The record is made up of 1 file (252 folios). It was created in 15 Mar 1942-17 Aug 1948. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .

Transcription

This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.

Apply page layout

4
Goof. 8410,
wo. ISO.
Cotif 8436,
No. 105.
Conf 9302,
No. 99.
Conf. 9302,
No. 205.
Cenf. 9307,
No. 168
Conf. 9307,
No. 197.
Conf. 9535,
No. 274
Conf. 9535,
No. 426 *
by the Rais-et-Tujjar to His Majesty’s Vice-Consul at Mohammerah in February
1904; the Sheikh expressed his thanks and stated that the Persian Government
had not yet taken sufficiently decided action as to render the intervention of
His Majesty’s Minister necessary, but that he would let His Majesty’s Minister
know should circumstances arise to justify such assistance. Later in the year,
however, the Resident in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. reported that the Sheikh was chafing
at the difficulties and uncertainty of his relations with, and position under, the
Shah’s Government, and was at heart dissatisfied at the limited measure of
support which the British Government had been able to promise him.
Renewals and Amplification of British Assurances, 1908-10.
7. In the years following the British assurances, Sheikh Khazal appears
to have suffered little serious interference from the central Government, who,
in their weakness and in the chaotic situation in the country generally, appear
to have been content to allow the Sheikh to rule undisturbed over his territories :
in fact, the Sheikh actually complained to His Majesty’s Consul at Mohammerah
in October, 1907, that, while the Persian press and the Majlis were attacking
him on various counts, he was being left to his own resources in policing the 4
Shatt-el-Arab and suppressing disorders amongst the Persian tribes. He *
expressed a similar view to the British Resident in January, 1908, complaining
that he was left to defend the frontier against Turkey, and had to meet heavy
expenditure which should have been borne by the central Government; (actually,
although Turkey was making trouble further north, she had not extended such
activities to the Sheikh’s territories).
8. At the meeting with Major (afterwards Sir Percy) Cox in January, 1908,
the Sheikh, influenced partly by recent assurances given to the Sheikh of Koweit
(with whom he was on terms of close friendship) and by the advent of constitu
tional government in Persia, raised again the question of the British assurances,
saying that it was vital for him to know what would be the policy of His Majesty’s
Government, as far as he was concerned, in the event of {a) the break-up of
Persia, or (b) an attempt by the Majlis (as opposed to the former absolute govern
ment of the Shah) ‘ ‘ to reduce him to nothing ”; he asked for an assurance in
writing which should apply not only to himself but to his heirs, in return for
which he offered to bind himself to the British Government in any way considered ^
feasible. In reporting this conversation, the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. expressed the
opinion that the Sheikh was primarily sincere in his protestations that his hopes
and interests were centred on the British Government, but that he was never
theless mainly prompted by the dictates of self-preservation and that, failing
satisfaction from us, he might turn to the Germans for support. The Foreign
Office todk the view that the Sheikh, by reason of the geographical situation of
his possessions and by his considerable local influence, was in a position to hinder,
or even prevent, the prosecution of any foreign enterprise in the country watered
by the Karun, and that it was very desirable to secure his absolute adherence
to British interests in order to ensure that his power might always be exercised
in their favour by opposing any schemes which might be distasteful to His
Majesty’s Government; they were, therefore, disposed to repeat the previous
assurances, applying them to the Sheikh’s successor and amplifying them by a
form of words which would include the continuance of the Sheikh’s existing
state of autonomy.
9. After consultation with the Government of India, the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency.
received instructions to address a written assurance to the Sheikh, which he did
in a letter of the 1st December, 1908, the text of which is given as document No. 3
in the annex.
10. These renewed and amplified assurances failed to satisfy the Sheikh,
who, in March, 1909, complained to the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. that they safeguarded
him only as long as Persia remained a sovereign State; he wished the guarantee
to be extended in such a manner as to make it effective in the event of Persia’s
being occupied by foreign Powers or ceasing to be an independent State as a
result of foreign intervention; above all he wanted an assurance to the effect
thatj provided he and his heirs and tribesmen continued to show themselves
amenable to British advice and faithful to British interests, their possessions
would be guaranteed to them. In addition, he asked for advice whether to side
with the Royalists or Nationalists, both of which parties had been calling upon
him to throw in his lot with them, dedaring that he must inevitably take one
side or the other and expressing his fear that, if he came to a decision without
our advice, we might withdraw our guarantee on the ground that his decision
was unsatisfactory to us. Lastly, he appealed for a loan, saying that, if we could

About this item

Content

This file relates to the heirs of Shaikh Khaz‘al [Khaz‘al bin Jabir bin Merdaw Āl Ka‘bī], the late Arab Shaikh of Mohommerah [Khorramshahr], and their requests for British assistance.

The first few items of correspondence concern Shaikh Khaz‘al's eldest son, Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], who is now living in Iraq and who is reported to have requested permission from the British Embassy at Baghdad to enter Iran (most of the correspondence in this file refers to Iran as Persia), for the purpose of personally pressing his claims to property belonging to his father, which had been sequestered by the late Shah [Reza Shah Pahlavi].

The remainder of the file relates to Shaikh Chassib's brother, Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh ‘Abdullāh bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], and his wish to return to live in Persia, apparently peacefully, which is treated with suspicion by British officials. Much of the correspondence discusses whether Shaikh Abdullah, who has taken refuge in Kuwait after an unsuccessful attempt to return to live in Persia, should be given a British pension or an allowance, in order to prevent him from attempting to return to Persia, since it is deemed unlikely that he will receive any compensation from the Persian Government for the loss of his father's property.

Also included in the file are a copy of a document from the Combined Intelligence Centre, Iraq, entitled 'The Sheikhdom of Mohammerah A Short History' and a Foreign Office report entitled 'British Relations with Khazal, Sheikh of Mohammerah'.

The principal correspondents are the following: the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait; the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ; the British Consul, Khorramshahr; the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; the Secretary of State for India; the Foreign Office; His Majesty's Ambassador, Tehran; His Majesty's Ambassador, Baghdad; the Ruler of Kuwait, Shaikh Ahmed al Jabir As-Subah [Shaikh Aḥmad al-Jābir Āl Ṣabāḥ]; Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al.

Extent and format
1 file (252 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in chronological order from the front to the rear of the file. Circled serial numbers (red for received correspondence; blue/black for issued correspondence) refer to entries in the notes at the rear of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 254; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Additional foliation sequences, one of which is written in pencil and not circled (between ff 3-131 and ff 143-224), and one of which is written in pencil and circled (between ff 1-253), have been superseded and therefore crossed out.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
View the complete information for this record

Use and share this item

Share this item
Cite this item in your research

'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎187v] (374/508), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/5/178, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100030262304.0x0000af> [accessed 14 June 2024]

Link to this item
Embed this item

Copy and paste the code below into your web page where you would like to embed the image.

<meta charset="utf-8"><a href="https://www.qdl.qa/en/archive/81055/vdc_100030262304.0x0000af">'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [&lrm;187v] (374/508)</a>
<a href="https://www.qdl.qa/en/archive/81055/vdc_100030262304.0x0000af">
	<img src="https://iiif.qdl.qa/iiif/images/81055/vdc_100000000831.0x0000a5/IOR_R_15_5_178_0376.jp2/full/!280,240/0/default.jpg" alt="" />
</a>
IIIF details

This record has a IIIF manifest available as follows. If you have a compatible viewer you can drag the icon to load it.https://www.qdl.qa/en/iiif/81055/vdc_100000000831.0x0000a5/manifestOpen in Universal viewerOpen in Mirador viewerMore options for embedding images

Use and reuse
Download this image