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File 345/1908 Pt 1 'Mohammerah: situation. British assurances to Sheikh.' [‎78v] (161/416)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (203 folios). It was created in 1904-1910. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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As to the question of successors, in my opinion it will not satisfy the sheikh, the
pointing out that successors will he presumably heirs of his body lawfully begotten,
and Haii Rais is of the same opinion. The sheikh is particularly anxious to have his
offspring (“ aolad ”) mentioned. So in my opinion it will be advisable to give him the
extension to “ heirs and successors. -nriTT a t t
ON the 1st December, 1908, I had the honour, by the direction of His Majesty’s
Government, to repeat to your Excellency the assurances given you on behalf of
Government by his Excellency Sir Arthur Hardinge, British Minister at Tehran m his
letter of the 7th December, 1902, to your address, and to inform you that the British
Government were now prepared to extend those assurances to your successois.
I was further directed to explain to you that the British Government had engaged
to respect the integrity and independence of Persia, and^ that that undertaking in
itself involved the maintenance of the status quo in Persia, and thus included the
continuance of the same state of autonomy which your Excellency at piesent enjoys.
I was then to point out that it followed from the above that any external aggression
upon your Excellency would constitute an act of infringement of that Persian integrity
which has received recognition in the Anglo-Russian Convention.
While expressing your thanks for these amplified assurances, you represented that
they seemed to you only to safeguard you so long as Persia continued to exist as a
sovereign State and you pressed for a further assurance which would cover the
contingency of Persia ceasing to exist as a sovereign State and the intervention or
occupation by foreign Powers.
You also expressed doubt as to whether the present assurance only provided
immunity against unwarrantable encroachment on your rights by the absolute govern
ment of His Majesty the Shah, or whether it also covered prevention of similar action
on the part of parliamentary government. Tn reply to those representations, your
Excellency was informed that Great Britain and Russia being pledged to respect the
integrity of Persia, the British Government were not, properly speaking, able to admit
even the possibility of Persia ceasing to be a sovereign State or coming under the
occupation of a foreign Power, but that in the unlikely event of such a contingency I
I was further permitted to inform you that whatever change might take place in
the form of government in Persia the British Government were prepared to give you
the same support against any encroachment on your rights as was promised to you m
1902, and I was authorised to add that they were now prepared to extend the
application of those assurances to your “ heirs and successors.”
Mr. McDouall and I have informed you that in our opinion the assurances as
now extended and expressed, appear to satisfy all your requirements ; but you have
further requested that the words “heirs and successors ” may be changed and the words
“ own successive male descendants ” may be written instead ; and you have gone on
to express the hope that His Majesty’s Government will be pleased to dispel the last
shadow of doubt from your mind regarding their own intentions in the future, by
adding after the words “male descendants ” as above, the words “up to a period of
100 years ” (or if it be possible 150 years).
I cannot give your Excellency any reply on this point without reference to
Government, but I will lose no time in communicating to them your representations.
w. McDouall.
Inclosure 3 in No. 1.
Consul-General Cox to the Sheikh of Mohammerah.
Mohammerah, May 16, 1909.
the assurances already given to your Excellency would become even more binding than
I have, &c.
P. Z. COX, Major,
Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. .

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The correspondence discusses the situation regarding British assurances to the Sheikh of Mohammerah. The volume includes a description of the Sheikh's perception that, despite his good behaviour towards the British he has not been afforded the support provided to other Arab sheikhs in the Gulf as in Kuwait or Bahrain. Letters include an account of the explanation given to the Sheikh of Mohammerah that Britain recognized Bahrain and Kuwait as independent, in de jure as well as de facto terms; in contrast the British recognized the Shah's sovereignty over Mohammerah.

The correspondence discusses the practicalities of a customs arrangement between the Shah and the Sheikh of Mohammerah mediated by the British. Letters consider the circumstances under which Britain could intervene militarily to protect its interests in the Karun Valley in the event of disorder arising following interference by the Shah.

The correspondence discusses the scope and form of words of the assurance to be given to the Sheikh of Mohammerah and his male descendants, in the event of disorder following from a change in the Persian regime, be it of a royalist, nationalist, or constitutional nature as well as disputes with Bakhtiari khans.

Correspondents include: Shaikh Khazal Khan, Sardar Leader of a tribe or a polity; also refers to a military rank or title given to a commander of an army or division. -i-Afra, the Shaikh of Mohammerah; The Confidential Agent of the Shaikh of Mohammerah; Major Percy Zachariah Cox, Her Majesty's Consul at Bushire; Sir Edward Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; Acting Consul of Mohammerah.

Each part includes a divider which gives the subject and part numbers, year the subject file was opened, subject heading, and list of correspondence references contained in that part by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence.

Extent and format
1 volume (203 folios)

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume. The subject 345 (Mohammerah) consists of two volumes, IOR/L/PS/10/132-133. The volumes are divided into two parts, with each part comprising one volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 203; these numbers are written in pencil and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the one leading flyleaf.

Written in
English in Latin script
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File 345/1908 Pt 1 'Mohammerah: situation. British assurances to Sheikh.' [‎78v] (161/416), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/132, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 24 June 2024]

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