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The record is made up of 1 item (47 folios). It was created in 1947. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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ment of this region in the future. The thread of the history of
Arabia is the frankincense trade, which dates back almost to times
immemorial. The use of frankincense in 1500 B.C. is mentioned in
Exodus (Chap. 30, v. 34), and, notwithstanding the Queen of Sheba’s
gifts, Solomon’s imports through Eloth, near Ezion Geber, at the
head of the gulf of Akaba, came from Ophir (I Kings, Chap. 9, v. 26,
also Chap. 10, vv. 2, 10, 11 and 22). It is believed that Ophir corre
sponded with some place on the coast of Malabar, India, and that
the coastwise trade followed along the southern coast of Arabia
(except during the monsoon period) about 1000 B.C. It seems quite
certain, however, that the frankincense was obtained from the
countries bordering the Gulf of Aden, largely from definite areas on
the Arabian side, by export from certain ports only. This appears
to have been established by H. J. Carter (1845-48), who found the
limits to be from the Jabal Qamar to the Jabal Samhan, thus corre
sponding exactly with the limits of the Dhufar province in the
Sultanate of Oman of today.
9. Early in the Christian era, the second century, when Rome
held Egypt, historians such as Claudius Ptolemy, Arian or the
anonymous writer The lowest of the four classes into which East India Company civil servants were divided. A Writer’s duties originally consisted mostly of copying documents and book-keeping. of the Periplus, and Theophrastus and Pliny,
mention such ports along the south Arabian coast where markets
existed for trading in frankincense and myrrh and other spices.
These included the ‘Arabia Felix’ of the Romans (identified as the
Aden of today), ‘ Arabiae emporium’ (recognized as the later Kane or
Cana and identified as the site of Hisn Ghorab near Bir Ali, 60 miles
south-west of modern Makalla), Manteion Artimidos (of Ptolemy,
later occupied as Mansura, and now recognized in the ruins of El
Balad near Salalah. The Diana Oraculum near there has been
recognized by J. Theodore Bent as ruins of a well in the lower
Nihaz below the cavern of Sahaur). The Abyssapolis of Ptolemy
has been recognized as identical with Moscha or ancient Murbat
in the ruins east of Takah. The name appears to have been coined
after the famous precipice a few miles to the north in the Darbat
wadi A seasonal or intermittent watercourse, or the valley in which it flows. and known now as the Dahaq. Abyssapolis was subsequently
Hisn Mirahadh, but it is all in ruins now. It is thought that El
Balad to the west was the capital and Moscha to the east was the
chief port of the frankincense country.
10. This ‘frankincense country’ of the Bents evidently agrees
in position with the ‘libanophorous region’ of Ptolemy and the
‘ thuriferous region ’ of Pliny, and is the modern province of Dhufar.
There is no question that there are ancient ruins at El Balad and
other places on the coastal plain, Jurbaid, of Dhufar, and that
these sites appear to have been used by more than one government—
Sabian (sun-worshippers), Persian (fire-worshippers) and Arabian
(Islam). In spite of this region being one of the most attractive in
climate and fertility along the entire coast of Arabia, and the evidence

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This booklet contains a comprehensive geological report compiled by Sir Cyril Sankey Fox for the Omani Government in 1947. The booklet is the first general mineral audit of the southern reaches of Oman, near its border with Yemen, along with a detailed description of the geography. The mineral audit includes descriptions of potential oil deposits. The booklet also contains a map of the Dhufar coast.

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1 item (47 folios)
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'THE GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES OF DHUFAR PROVINCE, MUSCAT AND OMAN' [‎15r] (19/96), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/1422, ff 6-53, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 4 March 2024]

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